WWUzoom: FAQ

  • Students

    What is “WWUzoom” and how can I use it?
    With WWUzoom all members of the University of Münster including students can participate in video conferences and digital meetings with up to 300 participants at no charge. The software also offers screen-sharing and chat functions. Thanks to its user-friendly interface and high stability even with many participants, the service is ideal for a wide variety of communication and teaching scenarios. For more information on its use and functions, as well as data protection/security and other IT alternatives, visit our WWUzoom website.

    How is data security and data protection safeguarded when using Zoom at the WWU?
    All data protection matters related to the usage of "Zoom" are ensured by the GDPR-compliant contract data processing agreement. This agreement has been reviewed and approved by the University's Data Protection Officer. Video and audio data transmission is encrypted before it is processed on EU-based servers operated by Zoom. The personal data of WWU users is only transmitted to Zoom in accordance with the contract data processing agreement when a moderator, for example, arranges to hold a meeting via Zoom. Students are not required to personally sign in to participate in Zoom meetings offered by their instructors. The only information they need is the URL (along with the Meeting ID and password). Another alternative is "Jitsi" which is still operating and accessible via the University-operated servers.  Other "on-premise" solutions, such as BigBlueButton, are currently being evaluated and will be made available if they are deemed suitable. For more details related to data protection on Zoom, please visit our WWUzoom website.

    Can students be obliged to register with Zoom?
    No. Participating in Zoom meetings requires no prior registration with Zoom. Registration is only required for setting up meeting rooms. In this case, members of the University of Münster do not register directly via Zoom, but rather via a special WWU webpage https://wwu.zoom.us/ using one’s WWU user ID and password. This password is not shared with Zoom for any reason.

    As a student, I am unwilling to use Zoom. Are there any other possibilities to participate in courses?
    In response to the current situation, the University of Münster decided to use Zoom for teaching purposes. If an instructor uses Zoom to conduct his/her courses, students are generally required to use it as well if they wish to participate in the respective course. We remind you that no registration is required to simply participate in Zoom conferences, and for courses in which attendance is not mandatory, participants may sign in with pseudonyms, for example, in order to remain anonymous.

    When participating in courses via Zoom, do you have to give your real name or is possible to participate anonymously?
    Data protection regulations generally emphasise the principle of “data economy”, i.e. one need not be overly generous with one’s personal data. For example, unless the examination regulations state otherwise, students are allowed to participate in courses under made-up names or pseudonyms (e.g. Guest123). However, it is not permitted to assume the identity of other persons. The use of names which violate laws or ethical standards is forbidden and could serve as reason for exclusion from the course.

    Can students be forced to switch on their cameras for courses conducted via Zoom without mandatory attendance?
    No, students do not have to participate in courses for which attendance is not mandatory. If students decide to participate via Zoom, they can decide for themselves how much personal information they wish to share.

    Can students be forced to switch on their cameras for courses conducted via Zoom for which attendance is mandatory?
    Yes, for courses with mandatory attendance, instructors are permitted to require students to turn on their camera (if their devices are equipped with one) as proof of participation. Alternatively, proof of participation can also be substantiated by having students login to the respective course via the “Single Sign On” function on WWUzoom.

    Are students in online courses obliged to hold their personal ID card (or other official identification) to the camera if requested by the instructor?
    As a rule, students are only obligated to identify themselves when participating in courses with mandatory attendance or when taking examinations. If the student is asked to identify him/herself with an ID card, passport or other document, the instructor/invigilator must ensure that no other participant in the course or examination can view the respective document except the instructor/invigilator. When using Zoom, this is possible using a so-called “breakout room” comprising only the instructor and respective participant. There, the participant can show the instructor his/her ID.

    What if I don’t have an Internet connection at home? Does the University provide rooms with Internet access which I could use?
    No, due to the current crisis, the University cannot provide such rooms to students or offer WWU WiFi access via other channels at present. Please contact your instructor(s) to discuss how best to proceed.

  • Teaching Staff

    General
    Security
    Data Protection
    Recordings
    Courses
    Exams
    Copyright


    General

    What is “WWUzoom” and how can I use it?
    With WWUzoom all members of the University of Münster including students can participate in video conferences and digital meetings with up to 300 participants at no charge. The software also offers screen-sharing and chat functions. Thanks to its user-friendly interface and high stability even with many participants, the service is ideal for a wide variety of communication and teaching scenarios. For more information on its use and functions, as well as data protection/security and other IT alternatives, visit our WWUzoom website.


    Security

    How do I prevent others from "zoombombing" our Zoom conferences?WWUzoom offers numerous functions to prevent others from disrupting meetings, and many of them are automatically activated in the default settings. These include granting the participants access via passwords and setting up a "waiting room", from which the moderator must summon the participants individually. In addition, moderators can remove undesired participants from meetings or mute their audio signal.

    The important thing is not to publicise the meeting ID and access password on the Internet, but rather forward these to the intended participants (e.g. via email) and remind them to treat this information confidentially.

    Tip: You can use your Learnweb course to set up a meeting room. This way you do not have to worry about sending your students meeting-room links and passwords; the students receive all the necessary information directly via Learnweb. When you are in the editing mode , you can find the Zoom activity under "Set up materials and activities" in the list of possible activities. From there you can schedule/set up a Zoom meeting. Please ensure that the Learnweb course is protected with a "registration key" (password), and if your participant group is complete, please deactivate the self-registration function for new participants.

    What should I keep in mind regarding my Zoom personal meeting ID?
    To prevent unwanted individuals from joining your meeting, only forward the meeting ID and corresponding password to those who are supposed to participate in the meeting. Refrain from publicly announcing this information online.

    Is it true that Zoom can simply listen in on conversations or meetings without obtaining consent or informing the participants?
    No. Zoom will never access its own services in order to listen to or record meetings. Server administrators could theoretically do this because they must have access to their systems in order to remedy disruptions to service. However, accessing meetings without the explicit permission of the University of Münster would represent a severe violation of the contract data processing agreement, as well as Zoom’s own data protection policy, not to speak of state and federal laws which could result in legal action.

    I have heard there is an “attention tracking” feature on Zoom. Is this true, and how can I recognise and disable it as a participant in a Zoom meeting?
    This function used to exist in the Zoom module "Webinar" but was removed from Zoom globally before the University of Münster installed the software.

    What kind of encryption possibilities are available when using Zoom?
    Audio and video communication are automatically encrypted during transmission (according to Zoom TSL, with the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) 256 EBC). This corresponds to the current standards for most video conferencing services. For those who use the integrated chat function in Zoom, the University has configured the encryption of chat communication in accordance with the 256-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) 256 EBC.

    Does Zoom really "sell" data to third parties? If not, why do they have a "Do not sell" link?
    No. Zoom clearly states that no personal data collected through the use of its services is ever sold to third parties. On its own website, Zoom – like many other companies – uses marketing tools which can be deactivated by clicking the corresponding opt-out link. Because WWU users are not required to access this site, there is no need to take any action.


    Data Protection

    What kind of personal data is stored if I join a Zoom meeting as a participant or moderator?
    To learn what data is processed and saved, please read our data protection policy.

    What default settings are in place to ensure that Zoom collects as little information about me as possible?
    Thanks to the campus license and a separate WWU user authentication page, very little personal data is transmitted to Zoom compared to that collected via direct sign-in. This data is protected on the basis of a contract data processing agreement between the WWU and Zoom. If you wish to learn what data is processed and for what purpose, please refer to our data protection policy.

    When is my personal data erased after participating in or moderating a meeting via Zoom? As soon as the meeting is over?
    The data is automatically erased after seven days.

    According to the Zoom privacy policy, I can withdraw my consent after granting it in connection to services provided through Zoom. Where can I withdraw my consent?
    To withdraw your consent, please send a brief email to this effect to it.zoom@wwu.de.

    As a moderator, can I specify or change certain default settings when I invite participants to Zoom meetings? What do I have to consider with regard to data protection regulations? Is there an info sheet/checklist available that I can use for orientation?
    The WWU IT has pre-emptively configured numerous default settings which we consider to be ideal for most scenarios, and at the same time, are especially privacy-oriented. Nonetheless, moderators can change most of these settings for their meetings if they wish. We will be posting instructions for various scenarios shortly on our Zoom website. In terms of data protection, if you are given the choice of changing default settings, we ask you to select the setting which requires the least amount of data collection from the participants as possible.


    Recordings

    I would like to record my course and make it available for others to view at a later time. How can I do this and what data protection issues do I have to consider?
    There are basically two ways to do this:

    1. Pre-record the video
      1. with the aid of Opencast Studio
      2. with the aid of the recording function in PowerPoint
      3. with the aid of the recording function in Zoom in a meeting room without participants
      4. with the aid of recording equipment installed in a lecture hall using the e-lectures infrastructure
    2. This variant only allows the instructor and/or his/her presentation to be seen and therefore poses no problems with respect to data protection laws.
    1. Post a recording of a video for later viewing, e.g. of a course conducted via Zoom

    We recommend primarily using the asynchronous variants described on the Learnweb, i.e. the “pre-taped videos” without an audience. If you wish to post a video of a course (recorded e.g. via Zoom) for later viewing, please bear in mind that due to data protection regulations, none of the participants should be seen nor heard because 1.) the consent from the students in this teaching context would not meet the criterion of voluntary consent as required by the GDPR (and besides, those who refused to grant consent would have to be technically blocked from joining the Zoom meeting) and 2.) subsequent erasure of individual comments in videos is difficult. For this reason, we have deactivated the recording function in the default mode. However, moderators can reactivate it when setting up a new meeting: https://www.uni-muenster.de/IT/en/services/kommunikation/wwuzoom/lehre/aufzeichnungen.html
    It is not technically possible to permanently mute the participants or prevent their video linkups. Therefore, before recording you should remind the participants to shut off their cameras and microphones for the duration of the lesson.

    As a participant, how do I know if a meeting/lecture/seminar is being recording on Zoom?
    WWUzoom is configured in such a way that all participants must consent to the recording before it begins. In addition, when recording, you will see a blinking camera icon. Only the moderator has the authority to start a recording.

    Do I have to inform my students that they are not permitted to record courses regardless of whether they are transmitted live or pre-taped?We recommend informing students at the beginning of a course in an appropriate form that recording courses would be in violation of criminal, civil and copyright laws and could make them liable to prosecution and/or compensation for damages.

    For example, at the beginning of a course, instructors could present a slide with the following text:
    "Please note that participants who make unauthorised recordings of online courses regularly violate criminal, civil and copyright laws and may be liable to prosecution and/or compensation for damages."

    As an instructor, I would like to record the oral presentations my students hold via Zoom so that I can view them one more time before determining the final grades. Am I allowed to do that?
    No, unless the respective examination regulations specifically allow the recording of oral presentations, e.g. if the presentation in video format is part of the degree-relevant examination requirements. Obtaining the student’s prior consent would not change the matter as such consent must be given voluntarily and therefore would not be valid.


    Courses

    Can students be obliged to register with Zoom?
    No. Participating in Zoom meetings requires no prior registration with Zoom. Registration is only required for setting up meeting rooms. In this case, members of the University of Münster do not register directly via Zoom, but rather via a special WWU webpage https://wwu.zoom.us/ using one’s WWU user ID and password. This password is not shared with Zoom for any reason.

    Some students are unwilling to use Zoom. Are there any other possibilities available so that they can participate in courses?
    In response to the current situation, the University of Münster decided to use Zoom for teaching purposes. If an instructor uses Zoom to conduct his/her courses, students are generally required to use it as well if they wish to participate in the respective course. We remind you that no registration is required to simply participate in Zoom conferences, and for courses in which attendance is not mandatory, participants may sign in with pseudonyms, for example, in order to remain anonymous.

    When participating in courses via Zoom, do you have to give your real name or is possible to participate anonymously?
    Data protection regulations generally emphasise the principle of “data economy”, i.e. one need not be overly generous with one’s personal data. For example, unless the examination regulations state otherwise, students are allowed to participate in courses under made-up names or pseudonyms (e.g. Guest123). However, it is not permitted to assume the identity of other persons. The use of names which violate laws or ethical standards is forbidden and could serve as reason for exclusion from the course.

    Can students be forced to switch on their cameras for courses conducted via Zoom without mandatory attendance?
    No, students do not have to participate in courses for which attendance is not mandatory. If students decide to participate via Zoom, they can decide for themselves how much personal information they wish to share.

    Can students be forced to switch on their cameras for courses conducted via Zoom for which attendance is mandatory?
    Yes, for courses with mandatory attendance, instructors are permitted to require students to turn on their camera (if their devices are equipped with one) as proof of participation. Alternatively, proof of participation can also be substantiated by having students login to the respective course via the "Single Sign On" function on WWUzoom.

    Are students in online courses obliged to hold their personal ID card (or other official identification) to the camera if requested by the instructor?
    As a rule, students are only obligated to identify themselves when participating in courses with mandatory attendance or when taking examinations. If the student is asked to identify him/herself with an ID card, passport or other document, the instructor/invigilator must ensure that no other participant in the course or examination can view the respective document except the instructor/invigilator. When using Zoom, this is possible using a so-called "breakout room" comprising only the instructor and respective participant. There, the participant can show the instructor his/her ID.

    What if I don’t have an Internet connection at home? Does the University provide rooms with Internet access which I could use?
    No, due to the current crisis, the University cannot provide such rooms to students or offer WWU WiFi access via other channels at present. Please contact your instructor(s) to discuss how best to proceed.

    What can I do to support students with disabilities and ensure that my online teaching materials are handicapped accessible?
    For students with disabilities (physical disabilities, chronic and/or psychological illnesses), the current situation presents additional challenges. In our info sheet on Handicapped Accessible Online Teaching, you will find a number of organisational and technical measures which can be easily implemented to ensure that your teaching materials are accessible to everyone. The Disability and Access Resource Centre is available to provide assistance with planning and developing handicapped accessible online teaching and learning tools (tel: +49 251 83 22015, email: kosmb@uni-muenster.de).


    Exams

    As an examiner, what do I have to pay attention to when conducting oral examinations via Zoom (or another tool)?
    The same provisions of the examination regulations apply to online video examinations as they do to in-person examinations. When administering examinations via online video conferences, it is especially important to adhere to the "four-eyes principle". This means that two people – depending on the examination regulations, the examiner and assessor, or two examiners – must participate in the conference via video and audio link for the duration of the examination. The minutes of the examination must be documented in a protocol. It is not permitted, however, to record the examination. Technical disruptions in online video examinations should generally be treated in the same way interruptions in an in-person examination would be handled: the examiners should attempt to remedy the malfunction and add on any lost time to the end of the examination. If the disruption cannot be fixed, the examination should be terminated. For further practical tips and instructions, please consult the Guidelines for Administering Online Video Examinations [de] for the duration of the coronavirus (German only).

    An external examiner who is employed at a company is not allowed to use Zoom. What other possibilities do they have to administer remote examinations?
    In this case it may be possible to conduct the examination via another WWU-recommended service provider, e.g. Jitsi or DFNconf. Otherwise, the examiner might have to use a different device outside his/her company or institution.


    Copyright

    What copyright issues should I know about when sharing a presentation using the shared screen function in Zoom?
    As a rule, presentation slides are copyright protected. Sharing a presentation using the shared screen function in Zoom can therefore represent a copyright-relevant act. This applies if sharing infringes on the usage rights of the corresponding copyright holder. Sharing could also conceivably constitute a violation of the right of public reproduction in accordance with § 15(2,1) UrhG (German Federal Copyright Act). What is needed in this case is evidence of a public audience for which reproduction is specifically intended in accordance with § 15(3,1) UrhG. Whether the definition of a public audience applies to video conferences via Zoom, especially when they are password-protected, is not clearly defined by law and is thus subject to a case-by-case legal review. One can assume, however, that password-protected Zoom conferences of university seminars shared among a small number of participants would not constitute a public audience. When shielded from public view, a presentation shown via the shared screen function would not represent a copyright-relevant act. If in doubt, you should side with caution and presume that showing the presentation will constitute reproduction for a public audience.
    If you share your own self-made presentation via screen sharing, there are no copyright laws prohibiting you from doing so. As you are the author of the presentation, you hold the usage rights to the work which also include the right to public reproduction.
    However, if you use copyright protected content in your own self-made presentation, e.g. images, music, graphics or videos, that again constitutes an infringement on usage rights, i.e. the reproduction rights of the corresponding author in accordance with § 16 UrhG. In order to justify using this material, you can obtain the usage rights from the respective copyright holder. This is perhaps the safest solution with regard to copyright law. The agreement on usage rights should be concluded in writing for purposes of evidence. Such rights can also be granted via free licensing agreements (e.g. creative commons licenses).
    Alternatively, you can invoke copyright protection restrictions which permit you to use the work without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
    This would apply, for example, to the right of quotation in accordance with § 51 UrhG. This provision allows the reproduction, distribution and/or public reproduction of a published work for the purpose of quoting the same insofar as the scope of its usage is justified by a special purpose. The important thing to consider here is that the work must have been already published. Furthermore, these “quotation rights” require the user to also intellectually engage with the used work. For example, using another author’s work in your presentation for purely illustrative purposes is not covered by § 51 UrhG. The scope in which you use another author’s work is also limited to what is required for its intellectual engagement as mentioned above. In accordance with § 63 (1) UrhG, you must also cite the source from which the author’s work originates.
    Another limitation to copyright protection, which you could invoke, is provided in § 60a UrhG. This provision allows instructors, examiners, and the participants (also guest students) of the respective course to reproduce, distribute, make publicly available or otherwise publicly present up to 15 % of a published work for explanatory, non-commercial teaching purposes at educational institutions. According to the legal justification, the limitation also applies explicitly for distance learning via the Internet and e-learning methods. The provision also includes the use of such materials for course preparation and follow-up. However, the provision applies on the condition that the used work has already been published. The maximum usage of a work (15 %) is based on the total presentation (e.g. the total number of number pages of a printed work). Section § 60 (2) UrhG states that illustrations, individual contributions from the same academic journal, smaller-sized works and works that are out of print may be used in whole. “Smaller-sized works” would be, e.g. printed works of up to 25 pages in length, or pieces of music or films of no longer than five minutes. Out-of-print works are those which are no longer available on the market or can no longer be delivered. As long as the prerequisites outlined in § 60a UrhG are met, other works may be used without permission. According to § 60h (1) UrhG, usage should generally be remunerated. The obligation to remunerate does not apply, however, to public reproduction intended for members of educational institutions as per § 60h (2,1) UrhG.
    To sum up, if you can invoke limitations to copyright protection or secure the usage rights from the respective copyright holder, you may justifiably use another author’s content in your own presentation. These principles equally apply if you share a presentation which is entirely comprised of someone else’s work using the screen-sharing function, whereby the provision on quotation rights (§ 51 UrhG) would likely be irrelevant in this case.

    May I show films produced by students via Zoom?
    Films produced by students could potentially represent a copyright protected cinematic work as defined by § 2(1,6) UrhG. In this case, the film must constitute the student’s personal intellectual creation. This means that the film must possess a minimum amount of individual creativity, whereby this distinction is subject to limited requirements and is regularly acknowledged as such. If the film falls under the category of a cinematic work in the sense of § 2(1) UrhG, the student is then the author of this work. This also means that the student holds the usage rights to the film. If the film is shown in a video conference, this could constitute an infringement of the student’s usage rights. This would require that the film be shown to a public audience as defined in § 15(3) UrhG. Whether this definition of a public audience applies to video conferences via Zoom, especially when they are password-protected, is not clearly defined by law and depends on the specific case. If in doubt, you should side with caution and presume that presenting the film will constitute reproduction for a public audience. In this case, justification must be given for infringing on the usage rights of the student. Justification can be obtained through an agreement with the student confirming his/her conferral of the usage rights. The usage rights agreement should be concluded in writing for purposes of evidence. Alternatively, you can invoke copyright protection restrictions which permit you to use the film in the video conference without the explicit permission of the author. For example, § 60a UrhG provides for restrictions with respect to classroom instruction and teaching. This provision allows the instructor or participants of the respective course to use up to 15 % of an already published work for explanatory, non-commercial teaching purposes. If the film is no longer than five minutes, it is defined as a smaller-sized work and may be shown entirely in accordance with §60(2) UrhG. This provision rests on the prerequisite that the film has already been published. The obligation to remunerate the author for the use of the work is then waived in this case in accordance to § 60h (2,1) UrhG.

    May I show another author’s content (film clips, music, videos) in the video conference?
    Using another author’s copyright-protected content in a video conference potentially constitutes an infringement of the author’s usage rights. This would require that the content be presented to a public audience as defined in § 15(3) UrhG. Whether this definition applies to video conferences via Zoom, especially when they are password-protected, is not clearly defined by law and must be determined on a case-by-case basis. If in doubt, you should side with caution and presume that presenting the content will constitute reproduction for a public audience. In this case, justification must be given for infringing on the usage rights of the author. Again, justification can be obtained through a written agreement with the author confirming his/her conferral of the usage rights or by invoking copyright protection restrictions. § 60a UrhG is especially relevant as it stipulates copyright restrictions for purposes of classroom instruction and teaching. This provision allows the instructor or participants of the respective course to use up to 15 % of an already published work for explanatory, non-commercial teaching purposes. If the content represents a “smaller-sized work” (e.g. music piece no longer than five minutes in duration), it may be used in its entirety in accordance with § 60 (2) UrhG. This provision rests on the prerequisite that the work has already been published. The obligation to remunerate the author for the use of the work is then waived in accordance to § 60h (2,1) UrhG.