Prof. Dr. Steffen Nestler

Position Head of the work unit
Prof. Dr.  Steffen Nestler  


E-Mail steffen.nestler[at]
Room 244
Phone +49 (2 51) 83 - 3 94 99
Consultation Hours Tuesday, 16 to 18 o'clock

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CV English

  • Research Interests

    • Estimation of structural equation models
    • Social relations model and social network models
    • Modelling intra-individual variability
    • Applications of the lens model
    • Judgmental accuracy and judgmental biases
  • Publications

    Journal articles (peer-reviewed)

    in press

    Bloechl, M., Nestler, S., & Weiss, D. (in press). A limit of the subjective age bias: Feeling younger to a certain degree, but no more, is beneficial for life satisfaction. Psychology and Aging.

    Bhowmik, C. V., Nestler, S., Schrader, F.-W., Praetorius, A.-K., Biesanz, J. C., & Back, M. D. (in press). Teacher judgments at zero-acquaintance: A social accuracy analysis. Contemporary Educational Psychology.

    Humberg, S., Schönbrodt, F. D., Back, M. D., & Nestler, S. (in press). Cubic response surface analysis: Investigating asymmetric and level-dependent congruence effects with third-order polynomial models. Psychological Methods.

    Meurer, M., Nestler, S., & Oeberst, A. (in press). Debiasing media articles - Reducing hindsight bias in the production of written work. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition.

    Meurer, M., von der Beck, I., Nestler, S., & Oeberst, A. (in press). What drives increases in hindsight impressions after the reception of biased media content? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied.

    Nestler, S. (in press). Modeling intraindividual variability in growth with measurement burst designs. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal.

    Rau, R., Carlson, E. N., Back, M. D., Barranti, M., Gebauer, J. E., Human, L. J., Leising, D., & Nestler, S. (in press). What is the structure of perceiver effects? On the importance of global positivity and trait-specificity across personality domains and judgment contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. pdf osf

    Rau, R., Nestler, W., Dufner, M., & Nestler, S. (in press). Seeing the best or worst in others: A measure of generalized other-perceptions. Assessment. osf

    Salazar-Kämpf, M., Nestler, S., Hansmeier, J., Glombiewski, J., & Exner, C. (in press). Mimicry in psychotherapy - an actor partner model of therapists’ and pa-tients’ non-verbal behavior and its effects on the working alliance. Psychotherapy Research.

    Schulte, J., Dietal, F. A., Wilhelm, S., Nestler, S., & Buhlmann, U. (in press). Temporal dynamics of insight in body dysmorphic disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.


    Hannuschke, M., Gollwitzer, M., Geukes, K., Nestler, S., Back, M. D. (2020). Neuroticism and interpersonal perception: Evidence for positive, but not negative, biases. Journal of Personality, 88, 217-236.

    Human, L. J., Carlson, E. N., Geukes, K., Nestler, S., & Back, M. D. (2020). Do accurate personality impressions benefit early relationship development? The bidirectional associations between accuracy and liking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 118, 199-212.

    Leckelt, M., Geukes, K., Küfner, A. C. P., Niemeyer, L. M., Hutteman, R., Oster-holz, S., Egloff, B., Nestler, S., & Back, M. D. (2020). A longitudinal field inves-tigation of narcissism and popularity over time: How agentic and antagonistic as-pects of narcissism shape the development of peer relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 46, 643-659.

    Nestler, S. (2020). Modeling interindividual differences in latent within-person variation: The confirmatory factor level variability model. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 73, 452-473.

    Nestler, S., Luedtke, O., & Robitzsch, A. (2020). Maximum likelihood estimation of a social relations structural equation model. Psychometrika, 85, 870-889.

    Oeberst, A., von der Beck, I., Back, M., Cress, U., & Nestler, S. (2020). Wikipedia outperforms individuals when it comes to hindsight bias. Psychological Research, 84, 1517–1527.

    Rau, R., Thielmann, I., Breil, S. M., Geukes, K., Krause, S., Nikoleizig, L., . . . Nestler, S. (2020). Do perceiver effects in interpersonal perception predict cooperation in social dilemmas? Collabra: Psychology, 6(1), 35. pdf

    van Zalk, M. H. W., Nestler, S., Geukes, K., Hutteman, R., & Back, M. D. (2020). The Co-Development of extraversion and friendships: Bonding and behavioral mechanisms in friendship networks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 118, 1269-1290.


    Blöchl, M., Meissner, S., & Nestler, S. (2019). Does depression after stroke negatively influence physical disability? A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Journal of Affective Disorders, 247, 45-56. osf preprint pdf

    Breil, S., Geukes, K., Wilson, R. E., Nestler, S., Vazire, S., & Back, M. D. (2019). Zooming into real life extraversion: How personality and situation shape sociability in social interactions. Collabra: Psychology, 5, 7.

    Geukes, K., Breil, S., Hutteman, R., Nestler, S., Küfner, A. C. P., & Back, M. D. (2019). Explaining the longitudinal interplay of personality and social relationships in the laboratory and in the field: The PILS and the CONNECT study. Plos One, 14, e0210424.

    Humberg, S., Dufner M., Schönbrodt, F., Geukes, K., Hutteman, R., Küfner, A. C. P., van Zalk, M.,  Denissen, J. J. A., Nestler, S., & Back M. D. (in press). Is accurate, positive, or inflated self-perception most advantageous for psychological adjustment? A competitive test of key hypotheses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 116, 835-859.

    Humberg, S., Nestler, S., & Back, M. D. (2019). Response Surface Analysis in personality and social psychology: Checklist and clarifications for the case of congruence hypotheses. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 10, 409-419.

    Mund, M. & Nestler, S. (2019). Beyond the cross-lagged panel model: Next-generation statistical tools for analyzing interdependencies across the life course. Advances in Life Course Research, 41, 100249 . osf preprint

    Mota, S., Leckelt, M., Geukes, K., Nestler, S., Humberg, S., Schröder-Abe, M., Schmukle, S. C., & Back, M. D. (2019). A comprehensive examination of narcissists’ self-perceived and actual socioemotional cognition ability. Collabra: Psychology, 5, 6.

    Nestler, S., Humberg, S., & Schönbrodt, F. D. (2019). Response surface analysis with multilevel data: Illustration for the case of congruence hypotheses. Psychological Methods, 24, 291-308. osf pdf

    Nikoleizig, L., Nestler, S., & Krause, S. (2019). Prediction of group performance: The interplay of individual performance, interpersonal attraction, and interpersonal behavior. Collabra: Psychology, 5, 44.

    Rau, R., Nestler, S., Geukes, K., Back, M. D., & Dufner, M. (2019). Can other-derogation be beneficial? Seeing others as low in agency can lead to an agentic reputation in newly formed face-to-face groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 117, 201-227. osf pdf

    Rohr, M., Nestler, S., & Kunzmann, U. (2019). A trouble shared is a trouble halved: Age differences in emotional experience and expression during couples’ conversations. Psychology and Aging, 34, 848 - 861.

    Sander, M., Nestler, S., & Egloff, B. (2019). Depression and Sequential Decision Making Revisited. Frontiers in Psychology, 10:1492.

    Scharf, F., & Nestler, S. (2019a). A comparison of simple structure rotation criteria in temporal exploratory factor analysis for event-related potential data. Methodology, 15, 43-60. pdf

    Scharf, F., & Nestler, S. (2019b). Exploratory structural equation modeling for event-related potential data – an all-in-one approach? Psychophysiology. DOI 10.1111/psyp.13303 osf pdf

    Scharf, F., & Nestler, S. (2019c). Should regularization replace simple structure rotation in Exploratory Factor Analysis? Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 26, 576-590. osf pdf


    Hall, J. A., Back, M. D., Nestler, S., Frauendorfer, D., Schmid Mast, M., & Ruben, M. A. (2018). How do different ways of measuring individual differences in zero-acquaintance personality judgment accuracy correlate with each other? Journal of Personality, 89, 220-232.

    Humberg, S. C., Dufner M., Schönbrodt, F., Geukes, K., Hutteman, R., Van Zalk, M.,  Denissen, J. J. A., Nestler, S., & Back M. D. (2018). Enhanced versus simply positive: A new condition-based regression analysis to disentangle effects of self-enhancement from effects of positivity of self-view. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114, 303-322.

    Humberg, S., Dufner, M., Schönbrodt, F. D., Geukes, K., Hutteman, R., van Zalk, M. H. W., Denissen, J. J. A., Nestler, S., & Back, M. D. (2018). Why Condition-Based Regression Analysis (CRA) is Indeed a Valid Test of Self-Enhancement Effects: A Response to Krueger et al. (2017). Collabra: Psychology, 4, 26.

    Kunzmann, U., Nowak, J., Thomas, S., & Nestler, S. (2018). Value relativism and perspective taking: Two distinct facets of wisdom-related knowledge. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 73, 1384-1392.

    Nestler, S. (2018). Likelihood estimation of the multivariate social relations model. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 43, 387-406. osf pdf

    Nestler, S., Geukes, K., & Back, M. D. (2018). Modeling intraindividual variability in three-level models. Methdology, 14, 95-108. osf pdf

    Oeberst, A., von der Beck, I., Back, M. D., Cress, U., & Nestler, S. (2018). Biases in the production and reception of collective knowledge: The case of hindsight bias in Wikipedia. Psychological Research, 82, 1010-1026.

    Salazar-Kämpf, M., Lieberman, H., Kerschreiter, R., Krause, S., Nestler, S., & Schmukle, S. C. (2018). Disentangling the sources of mimicry: Social relations analyses of the mimicry-liking link. Psychological Science, 29, 131-138.

    Scharf, F., & Nestler, S. (2018). Principles behind variance misallocation in tem-poral exploratory factor analysis for ERP data: Insights from an inter-factor covariance decomposition. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 128, 119-136. osf pdf

    Schönbrodt, F. D., Humberg, S., & Nestler, S. (2018). Testing similarity effects with dyadic response surface analysis. European Journal of Personality, 32, 627-641. osf  preprint pdf

    Selected earlier publications (before 2018; see CV for a list of all publications)

    Geukes, K., Nestler, S., Hutteman, R., Dufner, M., Küfner, A. C. P., Egloff, B., Denissen, J. J. A., & Back, M. D. (2017). Puffed up but shaky selves: State self-esteem level and variability in narcissists. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 112, 769-786.

    Nestler, S., & Back, M. D. (2017). Using cross-classified structural equations models to examine the accuracy of personality judgments. Psychometrika, 82, 475–497. osf pdf

    Nestler, S., Geukes, K., Hutteman, R., & Back, M. D. (2017). Tackling longitudinal round-robin data: The Social Relations Growth Model. Psychometrika, 82, 1162-1181. osf pdf

    Nestler, S. (2016). Restricted maximum likelihood estimation for parameters of the social relations model. Psychometrika, 81, 1098-1117. osf pdf

    Leckelt, M., Küfner, A. C. P., Nestler, S., & Back, M. D. (2015). Behavioral processes underlying the decline of narcissists’ popularity over time. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109, 856-871. 

    Hutteman, R., Nestler, S., Wagner, J., Egloff, B., & Back, M. D. (2015). Wherever I may roam: Processes of self-esteem development from adolescence to emerging adulthood in the context of international student exchange. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108, 767-783. 

    Nestler, S. (2015a). Using Instrumental Variables to Estimate the Parameters in Unconditional and Conditional Second-Order Latent Growth Models. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 22, 461-473. pdf 

    Nestler, S. (2015b). A specification error test that uses instrumental variables to detect latent quadratic and latent interaction effects. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 22, 542-551. pdf

    Nestler, S., Grimm, K. J., & Schönbrodt, F. D. (2015). The social consequences and mechanisms of personality: How to analyse longitudinal data from individual, dyadic, round-robin, and network designs. European Journal of Personality, 29, 272-295. osf pdf

    Nestler, S. (2014). How the 2SLS/IV Estimator Can Handle Equality Constraints in Structural Equation Models: A System-of-Equations Approach. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 67, 353-369. pdf

    Nestler, S. (2013). A Monte Carlo study comparing PIV, ULS, and DWLS in the estimation of dichotomous confirmatory factor analysis. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 66, 127-143. pdf

    Nestler, S., Egloff, B., Küfner, A. C. P., & Back, M. D. (2012). An integrative lens model approach to bias and accuracy in human inferences: Hindsight effects and knowledge updating in personality judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 698-717. pdf

    Nestler, S., Blank, H., & v. Collani, G. (2008). Hindsight bias and causal attribution: A causal model theory of creeping determinism. Social Psychology, 39, 182-188.

    Book chapters

    Breil, S. M., Osterholz, S., Nestler, S., & Back, M. D. (in press). Contributions of nonverbal cues to the accurate judgment of personality traits. In T. D. Letzring, & J. S. Spain (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of accurate personality judgment. Oxford University Press.

    Osterholz, S., Breil, S. M., Nestler, S., & Back, M. D. (in press). Lens and dual lens models. In T. D. Letzring, & J. S. Spain (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of accurate person-ality judgment. Oxford University Press.

    Geukes, K. & Nestler, S. (in press). Within-person variability assessment approaches. In R. Schinke & D. Hackfort (Eds.), Encyclopeadia of Sport Psychology. International Soci-ety of Sport Psychology (ISSP).

    Nestler, S., (in press). Dyadic data analysis. In J. Rauthmann (Ed.), The Handbook of per-sonality dynamics and processes. Elsevier.

    Nestler, S., (in press). Longitudinal data analyses. In V. Zeigler-Hill, & Shackelford, T. (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Personality and Individual Differences. Sage publications.

    Back, M., & Nestler, S. (2017). Dual-process approaches to personality. In R. Deutsch, B. Gawronski, & W. Hofmann (Eds.), Reflective and impulsive determinants of human behavior (pp. 137-154). New York, NY: Routledge.

    Back, M. D., & Nestler, S., (2016). Accuracy of Judging Personality. In J. A. Hall, M., Schmid Mast, & T. V., West (Eds.), The social psychology of perceiving others accurately (pp. 98-124). Cambridge University Press.

    Oeberst, A., Cress, U., Back, M. D., & Nestler, S. (2016). Individual versus collaborative information processing: The case of biases in Wikipedia. In U. Cress, H. Jeong, & J. Moskaliuk (Eds.), Mass collaboration and Education (pp. 165-185). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

    von der Beck, I., Oeberst, A., Cress, U., Back, M. D., & Nestler, S. (2015). Hätte die Geschichte auch anders verlaufen können? Der Rückschaufehler zu Ereignissen in Wikipedia. In T. Wozniak, U. Rohwedder & J., Nemitz (Hrsg.), Wikipedia und Geschichtswissenschaft (S. 155-174). Oldenbourg: DeGruyter. 

    Zimmermann, J., Hutteman, R., Nestler, S., Neyer, F. J., & Back, M. D.(2015). Und wenn Sie zurückkommen, sind Sie plötzlich erwachsen? Auslandserfahrungen als Kontext der Persönlichkeitsentwicklung. In Fachstelle für Internationale Jugendarbeit der Bundesrepublik Deutschland e.V. (Ed.), Forum Jugendarbeit International (pp. 203-213). Bonn: IJAB-Verlag.

  • Funding

    Since 01/2018

    Reception and production of scientifc information in Wikipedia: The influence of the hindsight bias; supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG); 120.000 €; Nestler (NE 1485/8-1)

    Since 04/2017

    Estimation of complex social relations model data with maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods; supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG); 175.000 €; Nestler (NE 1485/7-1)


    Understanding and enhancing the accuracy of self- and meta-judgments of personality: An integrative lens model approach; supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG); 125.000 €; Nestler & Back (NE 1485/6-1; BA 3731/8-1)


    Reception and production of scientific information in Wikipedia: The influence of hindsight bias and social categorization; supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG); 110.000 €; Nestler & Back (NE 1485/5-1) within the Special Priority Program "Science and the Public"


    The longitudinal course of narcissists’ reputations: A developmental social interaction approach; supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG); 250.000 €; Back, Nestler & Egloff (BA 3731/6-1)

    2009 – 2012

    I’ve always known that you are lazy – Analyses on Personality Judgment Hindsight Bias; supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG); 100.000 €; Nestler, Back & Egloff (NE 1485/2-1)

    2008 – 2010

    Inevitability, foresseability, and memory distortions: Experimental induced dissocuations between the hindsight components; supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG); 105.000 €; Nestler (NE 1485/1-1)