PD Dr. Boris Forthmann

© B. Forthmann
Position Research Associate
E-Mail  boris.forthmann[at]uni-muenster.de
Telephone   +49 (2 51) 83 - 39 41 8
Consultation Hour    By arrangement via E-Mail 
CV English


  • Research Interests

    • Creativity (Measurment, Determinants, Consequences)
    • Applied Psychometrics
  • Publications

    Journal articles (peer-reviewed)

    in press

    Beisemann, M., Forthmann, B., & Doebler, P. (in press). Understanding ability and reliability differences measured with count items: The Distributional Regression Test Model and the Count Latent Regression Model. Multivariate Behavioral Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/00273171.2023.2288577

    Brosch, E.-K., Binnewies, C., Groening, C., & Forthmann, B. (in press). The role of general work engagement and well-being for vacation effects and for vacation fade-out. Applied Psychology: An International Review. https://doi.org/10.1111/apps.12488

    Dumas, D., Forthmann, B., & Alexander, P. A. (in press). Using a model of domain learning to understand the development of creativity. Educational Psychologist. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2023.2291577

    Forthmann, B. (in press). Disentangling quantity and quality in the assessment of creative productions. Creativity Research Journal. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2024.2315389

    Forthmann, B., & Doebler, P. (in press). Fifty years later and still working: Rediscovering Paulus et al.’s (1970) automated scoring of divergent thinking tests. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000518

    Forthmann, B., Goecke, B., & Beaty, R. E. (in press). Planning missing data designs for human ratings in creativity research: A practical guide. Creativity Research Journal. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2023.2250976

    Forthmann, B., Beaty, R. E., & Johnson, D. R. (in press). Semantic spaces are not created equal—how should we weigh them in the sequel? An in-depth examination of composites in automated creativity scoring. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000723

    Forthmann, B., Karwowski, M., & Beaty, R. E. (in press). Don’t throw the “bad” ideasaway! Multidimensional top-scoring increases reliability of divergent thinkingtasks. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000571

    Forthmann, B., & Nestler, S. (in press). Latent variable modeling of scientific impact: Estimation of the Q model parameters with structural equation models. Quantitative Science Studies. https://doi.org/10.1162/qss_a_00313

    Goecke, B., DiStefano, P. V., Aschauer, W., Haim, K., Beaty, R. E., & Forthmann, B. (in press). Automated scoring of scientific creativity in German. The Journal of Creative Behavior.

    Harenbrock, J., Forthmann, B., & Holling, H. (in press). Retest reliability of situational judgment tests: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personnel Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1027/1866-5888/a000323

    Krause, M., Greefrath, G., Forthmann, B., Kremer, F. E., Reer, F., Laumann, D., Masemann, D., ..., & Heusler, S. (in press). Effects of student-owned and provided mobile devices on mathematical modeling competence: Investigating interaction effects with problematic smartphone use and fear of missing out. Frontiers in Education, 9, 1167114. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2024.1167114

    Mentel, H., Förster, N., Forthmann, B., & Souvignier, E. (in press). Predictors of teachers’ behavioral intentions in inclusive education and their changes over time: A competitive test of hypotheses. Teaching and Teacher Education.

    Saretzki, J., Forthmann, B., & Benedek, M. (in press). A systematic quantitative review of divergent thinking assessments. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts.

    Thielsch, M. T., Forthmann, B., Brau, H., & Eisbach, S. (in press). All that glitters is gold: Development and validation of the Product Aesthetics Inventory (PAI). Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000494

    Yu, Y., Beaty, R. E., Forthmann, B., Beeman, M., Cruz, J. H., & Johnson, D. R. (in press). A mad method to assess idea novelty: Improving validity of automatic scoring using maximum associative distance (MAD). Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000573

    Zandi, N., Karwowski, M., Forthmann, B., & Holling, H. (in press). How stable is the creative self-concept? A latent atate-trait analysis. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000521

    Zielińska, A., Forthmann, B., Lebuda, I., & Karwowski, M. (in press). Self-regulation for creative activity: The same or different across domains? Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000540


    Breil, S. M., Lievens, F., Forthmann, B., & Back, M. D. (2023). Interpersonal behavior in assessment center role-play exercises: Investigating structure, consistency, and effectiveness. Personnel Psychology, 76, 759-795. https://doi.org/10.1111/peps.12507

    Buczak, P., Huang, H., Forthmann, B., & Doebler, P. (2023). The machines take over: A comparison of various supervised learning approaches for automated scoring of divergent thinking tasks. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 57, 17-36. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocb.559

    Förster, N., Erichsen, M., & Forthmann, B. (2023). Measuring reading progress in second grade: Psychometric properties of the quop-L2 test series. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 39, 5-13. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000688

    Förster, N., Forthmann, B., M., Back, M. D., & Souvignier, E. (2023). Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on reading performance of second grade children in Germany. Reading and Writing, 36, 289-315. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-022-10379-y

    Forthmann, B. (2023). Researcher capacity estimation based on the Q model: A generalized linear mixed model perspective. Scientometrics, 128, 4753-4764. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-023-04756-9

    Forthmann, B., & Ehlert, M. (2023). Creative metacognition and its relation to the conceptualization, assessment, and nurture of creativity: Comment on “A systematic framework of creative metacognition” by I. Lebuda & M. Benedek. Physics of Life Reviews, 47, 195-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2023.10.035

    Forthmann, B., Kaczykowski, K., Benedek, M., & Holling, H. (2023). The manic idea creator? A review and meta-analysis of the relationship between bipolar disorder and creative cognitive potential. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20, 6264. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20136264

    Miroshnik, K., Forthmann, B., Karwowski, M., & Benedek, M. (2023). The relationship of divergent thinking with broad retrieval ability and processing speed: A meta-analysis. Intelligence, 98, 101739. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2023.101739

    Patterson, J. D., Merseal, H. M., Johnson, D. R., Agnoli, S., Baas, M., Baker, B. S., ..., Forthmann, B., ..., & Beaty, R. E. (2023). Multilingual semantic distance: Automatic verbal creativity assessment in many languages. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 17, 495-507. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000618


    Beaty, R. E., Johnson, D. R., Zeitlen, D. C., & Forthmann, B. (2022). Semantic distance and the Alternate Uses Task: Recommendations for reliable automated assessment of originality. Creativity Research Journal, 34, 245-260. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2022.2025720

    Breil, S., Forthmann, B., & Back, M. D. (2022). Measuring distinct social skills via multiple speed assessments - A behavior-focused personnel selection approach. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 38, 224-236. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000657

    Caviggioli, F., & Forthmann, B. (2022). Reach for the stars: Disentangling quantity and quality of inventors’ productivity in a multifaceted latent variable model. Scientometrics, 127, 7015-7040. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-022-04328-3

    Dumas, D., Dong, Y., Grajzel, K., Forthmann, B., & Doherty, M. (2022). Understanding ideational fluency as a survival process. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, e12469. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12469

    Forthmann, B., & Dumas, D. (2022). Quantity and quality in scientific productivity: The tilted funnel goes Bayesian. Journal of Intelligence, 10, 95. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040095

    Forthmann, B., Förster, N., & Souvignier, E. (2022). Multilevel and empirical reliability estimates of learning growth: A simulation study and empirical illustration. Frontiers in Education, 7, 920704. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2022.920704

    Forthmann, B., Förster, N., & Souvignier, E. (2022). Shaky student growth? A comparison of robust Bayesian learning progress estimation methods. Journal of Intelligence, 10, 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10010016

    Forthmann, B., & Szardenings, C. (2022). Predicted Correlation. COLLNET Journal of Scientometrics and Information Management, 16, 7-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/09737766.2021.1989988

    Hebbecker, K., Förster, N., Forthmann, B., & Souvignier, E. (2022). Data-based decision-making in schools: Examining the process and effects of teacher support. Journal of Educational Psychology, 114, 1695-1721. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000530

    Neuber, L., Englitz, C., Schulte, N., Forthmann, B., & Holling, H. (2022). How work engagement relates to performance and absenteeism: a meta-analysis. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 31, 292-315. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2021.1953989

    Peters, M. T., Förster, N., Forthmann, B., & Souvignier, E. (2022). Business-as-usual reading instruction in 2nd grade: teacher centered and rarely evidence-based. Reading and Writing, 35, 1569–1597. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-021-10252-4


    Diebig, M., Li, J., Forthmann, B., Schmidtke, J., Muth, T., & Angerer, P. (2021). A three-wave longitudinal study on the relation between commuting strain and somatic symptoms in university students: Exploring the role of learning-family conflicts. BMC Psychology, 9, 199. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-021-00702-7

    Forthmann, B., & Doebler, P. (2021). Reliability of researcher capacity estimates and count data dispersion: A comparison of Poisson, negative binomial, and Conway-Maxwell Poisson models. Scientometrics, 126, 3337-3354. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-021-03864-8

    Forthmann, B., Jankowska, D. M., & Karwowski, M. (2021). How reliable and valid are frequency-based originality scores? Evidence from a sample of children and adolescents. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 41, 100851. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2021.100851

    Forthmann, B., Szardenings, C., & Dumas, D. (2021a). On the conceptual overlap between the fluency contamination effect in divergent thinking scores and the chance view on scientific creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 55, 268-275. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocb.445

    Forthmann, B., Szardenings, C., & Dumas, D. (2021b). Testing equal odds in creativity research. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 15, 324-339. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000294

    Forthmann, B., Szardenings, C., Dumas, D., & Feist, G. J. (2021). Strict equal odds: A useful reference to study the relationship between quality and quantity. Creativity Research Journal, 33, 96-105. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2020.1827605

    Gerwig, A., Miroshnik, K., Forthmann, B., Benedek, M., Karwowski, M., & Holling, H. (2021). The relationship between intelligence and divergent thinking—A meta-analytic update. Journal of Intelligence, 9, 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence9020023

    Karwowski, M., Czerwonka, M., Wiśniewska, E., & Forthmann, B. (2021). How is Intelligence Test Performance Associated with Creative Achievement? A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Intelligence, 9, 28. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence9020028

    Kleinkorres, R., Forthmann, B., & Holling, H. (2021). An experimental approach to investigate the involvement of cognitive load in divergent thinking. Journal of Intelligence, 9, 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence9010003

    Peters, M. T., Förster, N., Hebbecker, K., Forthmann, B., Souvignier, E. (2021). Effects of Data-Based Decision Making on Low-Performing Readers in General Education Classrooms: Cumulative Evidence from Six Intervention Studies. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 54, 334-348. https://doi.org/10.1177/00222194211011580

    Rickert, P., Forthmann, B., & Kärtner, J. (2021). Factor structure and measurement invariance of employment counselors’ use of discretionary power and differences based on gender, training, and experience. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 34, 129-149. https://doi.org/10.1080/09515070.2019.1687424


    Beisemann, M., Forthmann, B., Bürkner, P. C., & Holling, H. (2020). Psychometric evaluation of an alternate scoring for the Remote Associates Test. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 54, 751-766. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocb.394

    Breil, S., Forthmann, B., Hertel-Waszak, A., Ahrens, H., Brouwer, B., Schönefeld, E., Marschall, B., & Back, M. D. (2020). Construct validity of multiple mini-interviews: Investigating the role of stations, skills, and raters using bayesian g-theory. Medical Teacher, 42, 164-171. https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2019.1670337

    Forthmann, B., Förster, N., Schütze, B., Hebbecker, K., Fleßner, J., Peters, M. T., & Souvignier, E. (2020). How much g is in the distractor? Re-thinking item-analysis of multiple-choice items. Journal of Intelligence, 8, 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8010011

    Forthmann, B., Grotjahn, R., Doebler, P., & Baghaei, P. (2020). A comparison of different item response theory models for scaling speeded C-tests. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 38, 692-705. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282919889262

    *Forthmann, B., *Gühne, D., & Doebler, P. (2020). Revisiting dispersion in count-data item-response theory models: The Conway-Maxwell-Poisson counts model. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 73, 32-50. https://doi.org/10.1111/bmsp.12184 (*shared first autorship)

    Forthmann, B., Leveling, M., Dong, Y., & Dumas, D. (2020). Investigating the quantity-quality relationship in scientific creativity: An empirical examination of expected residual variance and the tilted funnel hypothesis. Scientometrics, 124, 2497-2518. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-020-03571-w

    Forthmann, B., Lips, C., Szardenings, C., Scharfen, J., & Holling, H. (2020). Are speedy brains needed when divergent thinking is speeded - or unspeeded? The Journal of Creative Behavior, 54, 123 - 133. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocb.350

    Forthmann, B., Paek, S. H., Dumas, D., Barbot, B., & Holling, H. (2020). Scrutinizing the basis of originality in divergent thinking tests: On the measurement precision of response propensity estimates. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 683-699. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12325

    Forthmann, B., & Runco, M. A. (2020). An empirical test of the inter-relationships between various bibliometric creative scholarship indicators. Publications, 8, 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/publications8020034

    *Forthmann, B., *Szardenings, C., & Holling, H. (2020). Understanding the confounding effect of fluency in divergent thinking scores: Revisiting average scores to quantify artifactual correlation. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 14, 94-112. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000196 (*shared first autorship)

    Hellmann, J. H., Forthmann, B., Knausenberger, J., Hellmann, D. F., Rees, J. H., Gansel, E., Back, M. D.*, & Echterhoff, G.* (2020). Support for refugee integration in West and East Germany: Results from two lost letter studies. Social Psychology, 51, 106-115. https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-9335/a000397

    Wilken, A., Forthmann, B., & Holling, H. (2020). Instructions moderate the relationship between creative performance in figural divergent thinking and reasoning capacity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 54, 582-597. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocb.392


    Forthmann, B., Oyebade, O., Ojo, A., Günther, F., & Holling, H. (2019). Application of latent semantic analysis to divergent thinking is biased by elaboration. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 53, 559-575. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocb.240

    Forthmann, B., Jendryczko, D., Scharfen, J., Kleinkorres, R., Benedek, M., & Holling, H. (2019). Creative ideation, broad retrieval ability, and processing speed: A confirmatory study of nested cognitive abilities. Intelligence, 75, 59-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2019.04.006

    Forthmann, B., Bürkner, P. C., Szardenings, C., Benedek, M., & Holling, H. (2019). A new perspective on the multidimensionality of divergent thinking tasks. Frontiers in Psychology: Cognition, 10, 985. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00985

    Forthmann, B., Wilken, A., Doebler, P., & Holling, H. (2019). Strategy induction enhances creativity in figural divergent thinking. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 53, 18-29. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocb.159

    Reiter-Palmon, R., Forthmann, B., & Barbot, B. (2019). Scoring divergent thinking tests: A review and systematic framework. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 13, 144-152. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000227


    Forthmann, B., Çelik, P., Holling, H., Storme, M., & Lubart, T. (2018). Item response modeling of divergent-thinking tasks: A comparison of Rasch’s Poisson model with a two-dimensional model extension. International Journal of Creativity and Problem Solving, 28, 83-95.

    Forthmann, B., Regehr, S., Seidel, J., Holling, H., Çelik, P., Storme, M., & Lubart, T. (2018). Revisiting the interactive effect of multicultural experiences and openness to experience on divergent thinking. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 63, 135-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2017.10.002

    Thielsch, M. T., Brinkmöller, B., & Forthmann, B. (2018). Reasons for responding in student evaluation of teaching. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 56, 189-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2017.11.008


    Storme, M., Çelik, P., Camargo, A., Forthmann, B., Holling, H., & Lubart, T. (2017). The effect of forced language switching during divergent thinking: A study on bilinguals' originality of ideas. Frontiers in Psychology: Cognition, 8, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02086

    Forthmann, B., Holling, H., Çelik, P., Storme, M., & Lubart, T. (2017). Typing speed as a confounding variable and the measurement of quality in divergent thinking. Creativity Research Journal, 29, 257-269. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2017.1360059

    Forthmann, B., Holling, H., Zandi, N., Gerwig, A., Çelik, P., Storme, M., & Lubart, T. (2017). Missing creativity: The effect of cognitive workload on rater (dis-)agreement in subjective divergent-thinking scores. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 23, 129-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2016.12.005


    Forthmann, B., Gerwig, A., Holling, H., Çelik, P., Storme, M., & Lubart, T. (2016). The be-creative effect in divergent thinking: The interplay of instructions and objekt frequency. Intelligence, 57, 25-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2016.03.005

    Blum, D., Holling, H., Galibert, M.S., & Forthmann, B. (2016). Task difficulty prediction of figural analogies. Intelligence, 56, 72-81.

    Çelik, P., Storme, M., & Forthmann, B. (2016). A new perspective on the link between multiculturalism and creativity: The relationship between core value diversity and divergent thinking. Learning and Individual Differences, 52, 188-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2016.02.002