• Research Areas

    • Chronology of the early solar system using short-lived nuclides
    • Early evolution of the solar nebula as inferred from nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies in meteorites and meteorite components
    • Accretion and differentiation of asteroids and terrestrial planets
  • CV


    Venia Legendi for Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry, ETH Zürich, Switzerland
    Dr. rer. nat. (with honours), Institute of Mineralogy, WWU Münster
    Diplom (German equivalent of Master) in Mineralogy, WWU Münster
    Diplom (German equivalent of Master) in Geology and Palaentology, WWU


    Professor (Chair) for Planetology, University of Muenster
    Assistant Professor for Isotope Geochemistry, ETH Zürich, Switzerland
    Senior Research Scientist (Oberassistent), Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, ETH Zürich, Switzerland
    EU Marie Curie Postdoctoral Fellow, Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, ETH Zürich, Switzerland
    Postdoctoral researcher, Institute for Isotope Geology and Mineral Resources, ETH Zürich, Switzerland
    Postdoctoral Researcher, Institute of Mineralogy, University of Muenster
    Research Assistant, Institute of Mineralogy, University of Muenster


    Election as Member of the North Rhine-Westphalian Academy of Sciences, Humanities and the Arts - North Rhine-Westphalian Academy of Sciences, Humanities and the Arts
    ERC Consolidator Grant - European Research Council (ERC)
    Fellow of the Meteoritical Society - The Meteoritical Society
    F.W. Clarke Award - The Geochemical Society
    SNSF professorships - ​Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)
    Victor Moritz Goldschmidt award - German Mineralogical Society
    Nier Prize - The Meteoritical Society
    Marie Curie fellowship - European Union
    Paul-Ramdohr-Preis 2002 - Deutsche Mineralogische Gesellschaft

    External functions

    Member of the European Association of Geochemistry
    Member of the Meteoritical Society
    Member of the Geochemical Society
    Member of the German Mineralogical Society (DMG)
  • Projects

  • Publications

    • Archer, G. J., Brennecka, G. A., Gleißner, P., Stracke, A., Becker, H., Kleine, T. . ‘Lack of late-accreted material as the origin of 182W excesses in the Archean mantle: Evidence from the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.’ Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 528. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2019.115841.
    • Hellmann J L, Kruijer T S, Van Orman J A, Metzler K, Kleine T. . ‘Hf-W chronology of ordinary chondrites.’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 258: 290-309. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2019.05.040.
    • Render J, Ebert S, Burkhardt C, Kleine T, Brennecka G A. . ‘Titanium isotopic evidence for a shared genetic heritage of refractory inclusions from different carbonaceous chondrites.’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 254: 40-53. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2019.03.011.

    • Brennecka, G.A. Amelin, Y. Kleine, T. . ‘Uranium isotope ratios of Muonionalusta troilite and complications for the absolute age of the IVA iron meteorite core.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 490: 1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2018.03.010.
    • Budde G., Kruijer T.S., Kleine T. . ‘Hf-W chronology of CR chondrites: Implications for the timescales of chondrule formation and the distribution of 26Al in the solar nebula.’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 222: 284-304. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2017.10.014.
    • Ebert S, Render J, Brennecka G A, Burkhardt C, Bischoff A, Gerber S, Kleine T. . ‘Ti isotopic evidence for a non-CAI refractory component in the inner Solar System.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 498: 257-265.
    • Hopp T., Fischer-Gödde M., Kleine, T. . ‘Ruthenium isotope fractionation in protoplanetary cores.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 223: 75-89. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2017.11.033.
    • Kruijer, T.S. Kleine, T. . ‘No 182W excess in the Ontong Java Plateau source.’ Chemical Geology 485: 24-31. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2018.03.024.
    • Matthes M., Fischer-Gödde M., Kruijer T., Kleine T. . ‘Pd-Ag chronometry of IVA iron meteorites and the crystallization and cooling of a protoplanetary core.’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 220, No. null: 82-95. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2017.09.009.
    • Neumann W, Kruijer TS, Breuer D, Kleine T. . ‘Multistage Core Formation in Planetesimals Revealed by Numerical Modeling and Hf-W Chronometry of Iron Meteorites.’ Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 123: 2017JE005411. doi: 10.1002/2017JE005411.
    • Render J, Brennecka G A, Shui-Jiong Wang, Wasylenki L E, Kleine T. . ‘A Distinct Nucleosynthetic Heritage for Early Solar System Solids Recorded by Ni Isotope Signatures.’ The Astrophysical Journal 862: 26-43. doi: https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aacb7e.
    • Timo Hopp, Thorsten Kleine. . ‘Nature of late accretion to Earth inferred from mass-dependent isotope compositions in meteorites and mantle peridotites.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 494: 50-59. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2018.04.058.

    Articles in Journals
    • Bast R, Scherer EE, Sprung P, Mezger K, Fischer-Gödde M, Taetz S, Böhnke M, Schmid-Beurmann H, Münker C, Kleine T, Srinivasan G. . ‘Reconciliation of the excess 176Hf conundrum in meteorites: Recent disturbances of the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics.’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 212: 303-323. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2017.05.043.
    • Brennecka G.A., Kleine T. . ‘A low abundance of 135Cs in the early Solar System from barium isotopic signatures of volatile-depleted meteorites.The Astrophysical Journal Letters 837.
    • Fischer-Gödde, Mario Kleine, Thorsten. . ‘Ruthenium isotopic evidence for an inner Solar System origin of the late veneer.’ Nature 541: 525-527. doi: 10.1038/nature21045.
    • Gerber S., Burkhardt C., Budde G., Metzler K., Kleine T. . ‘Mixing and Transport of Dust in the Early Solar Nebula as Inferred from Titanium Isotope Variations among Chondrules.’ Astrophysical Journal Letters 841, No. 1. doi: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa72a2.
    • Herd C., Walton E., Agee C., Muttik N., Ziegler K., Shearer C., Bell A., Santos A., Burger P., Simon J., Tappa M., McCubbin F., Gattacceca J., Lagroix F., Sanborn M., Yin Q., Cassata W., Borg L., Lindvall R., Kruijer T., Brennecka G., Kleine T., Nishiizumi K., Caffee M. . ‘The Northwest Africa 8159 martian meteorite: Expanding the martian sample suite to the early Amazonian.’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 218, No. null: 1-26. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2017.08.037.
    • Kleine T., Walker R. . ‘Tungsten Isotopes in Planets.’ Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science 45: 389-417. doi: 10.1146/annurev-earth-063016-020037.
    • Krabbe N., Kruijer T., Kleine T. . ‘Tungsten stable isotope compositions of terrestrial samples and meteorites determined by double spike MC-ICPMS.’ Chemical Geology 450, No. null: 135-144. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2016.12.024.
    • Kruijer, T.S. Burkhardt, C. Budde, G. Kleine, T. . ‘Age of Jupiter inferred from the distinct genetics and formation times of meteorites.’ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114, No. 26: 6712-6716. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1704461114.
    • Kruijer T., Kleine T. . ‘Tungsten isotopes and the origin of the Moon.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 475, No. null: 15-24. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2017.07.021.
    • Kruijer T., Kleine T., Borg L., Brennecka G., Irving A., Bischoff A., Agee C. . ‘The early differentiation of Mars inferred from Hf–W chronometry.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 474, No. null: 345-354. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2017.06.047.
    • Render, Jan Fischer-Gödde, Mario Burkhardt, Christoph Kleine, Thorsten. . ‘The cosmic molybdenum-neodymium isotope correlation and the building material of the Earth.’ Geochemical Perspectives Letters 3: 170-178. doi: 10.7185/geochemlet.1720.
    Articles in Edited Books
    • Kleine T. Wadhwa M. . ‘Chronology of Planetesimal Differentiation.’ In Planetesimals, edited by Elkins-Tanton L. Weiss B., 224-245. doi: 10.1017/9781316339794.

    • Bezard R., Fischer-Gödde M., Hamelin C., Brennecka G., Kleine T. . ‘The effects of magmatic processes and crustal recycling on the molybdenum stable isotopic composition of Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 453, No. null: 171-181. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2016.07.056.
    • Budde G., Burkhardt C., Brennecka G.A., Fischer-Gödde M., Kruijer T.S., Kleine T. . ‘Molybdenum isotopic evidence for the origin of chondrules and a distinct genetic heritage of carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous meteorites.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 454: 293-303. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2016.09.020.
    • Budde G., Kleine T., Kruijer T.S., Burkhardt C., Metzler K. . ‘Tungsten isotopic constraints on the age and origin of chondrules.’ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113: 2886-2891. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1524980113.
    • Burkhardt C., Borg L., Brennecka G., Shollenberger Q., Dauphas N., Kleine T. . ‘A nucleosynthetic origin for the Earth's anomalous 142 Nd composition.’ Nature 537, No. 7620: 394-398. doi: 10.1038/nature18956.
    • Hopp T., Fischer-Gödde M., Kleine T. . ‘Ruthenium stable isotope measurements by double spike MC-ICPMS.’ Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 31: 1515-1526. doi: 19.1039/c6ja00041j.

    Articles in Journals
    • Brennecka G.A., Budde G., Kleine T. . ‘Uranium isotopic composition and absolute ages of Allende chondrules.’ Meteoritics & Planetary Science 50, No. 12: 1995-2002. doi: 10.1111/maps.12567.
    • Budde G., Kruijer T.S., Fischer-Gödde M., Irving A.J., Kleine T. . ‘Planetesimal differentiation revealed by the Hf-W systematics of ureilites.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 430: 316-325. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2015.08.034.
    • Cook D.L., Kruijer T.S., Kleine T. . ‘Reply to comment by Peters et al. (2015) on "Cosmogenic 180W variations in meteorites and re-assessment of a possible 184Os-180W decay system".’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 169: 240-243.
    • Fischer-Gödde M., Burkhardt C., Kruijer T., Kleine T. . ‘Ru isotope heterogeneity in the solar protoplanetary disk.’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 168: 151-171. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2015.07.032.
    • Kruijer Thomas, Kleine Thorsten, Fischer-Gödde Mario, Sprung Peter. . ‘Lunar tungsten isotopic evidence for the late veneer.’ Nature 520: 534-537.
    • Matthes M., Fischer-Gödde M., Kruijer T., Leya I., Kleine T. . ‘Pd-Ag chronometry of iron meteorites: Correction of neutron capture-effects and application to the cooling history of differentiated protoplanets.’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 169, No. null: 45-62. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2015.07.027.
    • Touboul M., Sprung P., Aciego S., Bourdon B., Kleine T. . ‘Hf-W chronology of the eucrite parent body.’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 156, No. null: 106-121. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2015.02.018.
    Articles in Edited Books
    • Nimmo F., Kleine T. . ‘Early Differentiation and Core Formation: Processes and Timescales.’ In The Early Earth: Accretion and Differentiation, edited by Badro J., Walter M.J., 83-102. 1st Ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: American Geophysical Union and Jon Wiley & Sons.

    • Burkhardt C., Hin R.C., Kleine T., Bourdon B. . ‘Evidence for Mo isotope fractionation in the solar nebula and during planetary differentiation.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 391, No. null: 201-211. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.01.037.
    • Cook D.L., Kruijer T.S., Leya I., Kleine T. . ‘Cosmogenic 180W variations in meteorites and re-assessment of a possible 184Os-180W decay system.’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 140, No. null: 160-176. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2014.05.013.
    • Kruijer, T.S., Kleine, T., Fischer-Gödde, M., Burkhardt, C., Wieler, R. . ‘Nucleosynthetic W isotope anomalies and the Hf-W chronometry of Ca-Al-rich inclusions.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 403: 317-327.
    • Kruijer T.S., Touboul M., Fischer-Godde M., Bermingham K.R., Walker R.J., Kleine T. . ‘Protracted core formation and rapid accretion of protoplanets.’ Science 344, No. 6188: 1150-1154. doi: 10.1126/science.1251766.

    • Hans U., Kleine T., Bourdon B. . ‘Rb-Sr chronology of volatile depletion in differentiated protoplanets: BABI, ADOR and ALL revisited.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 374, No. null: 204-214. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2013.05.029.
    • Hin R.C., Burkhardt C., Schmidt M.W., Bourdon B., Kleine T. . ‘Experimental evidence for Mo isotope fractionation between metal and silicate liquids.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 379, No. null: 38-48. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2013.08.003.
    • Kruijer T.S., Sprung P., Kleine T., Leya I., Wieler R. . ‘The abundance and isotopic composition of Cd in iron meteorites.’ Meteoritics and Planetary Science 48: 2597-2607.
    • Kruijer TS, Fischer-Gödde M, Kleine T, Sprung P, Leya I, Wieler R. . ‘Neutron capture on Pt isotopes in iron meteorites and the Hf-W chronology of core formation in planetesimals.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 361: 162-172. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.10.014.
    • Mezger K, Debaille V, Kleine T. . ‘Core Formation and Mantle Differentiation on Mars.’ Space Science Reviews 174: 27-48. doi: 10.1007/s11214-012-9935-8.
    • Sprung P., Kleine T., Scherer E.E. . ‘Isotopic evidence for chondritic Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd of the Moon.Earth and Planetary Science Letters 380: 77-87.

    • Burkhardt C, Kleine T, Dauphas N, Wieler R. . ‘Origin of isotopic heterogeneity in the solar nebula by thermal processing and mixing of nebular dust.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 357: 298-307. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.09.048.
    • Burkhardt C, Kleine T, Dauphas N, Wieler R. . ‘Nucleosynthetic tungsten isotope anomalies in acid leachates of the Murchison chondrite: Implications for hafnium-tungsten chronometry.’ The Astrophysical Journal Letters 753: L6.
    • Henke S, Gail H-P, Trieloff M, Schwarz WH, Kleine T. . ‘Thermal evolution and sintering of chondritic planetesimals.’ Astronomy and Astrophysics 537. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201117177.
    • Henke S, Gail HP, Trieloff M, Schwarz WH, Kleine T. . ‘Thermal history modelling of the H chondrite parent body.’ Astronomy & Astrophysics 545: -. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219100.
    • Kleine T, Hans U, Irving AJ, Bourdon B. . ‘Chronology of the angrite parent body and implications for core formation in protoplanets.’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 84: 186-203. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2012.01.032.
    • Kruijer T.S., Sprung P., Kleine T., Leya I., Burkhardt C., Wieler R. . ‘Hf–W chronometry of core formation in planetesimals inferred from weakly irradiated iron meteorites.’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 99: 287-304.
    • Stracke A, Palme H, Gellissen M, Munker C, Kleine T, Birbaum K, Gunther D, Bourdon B, Zipfel J. . ‘Refractory element fractionation in the Allende meteorite: Implications for solar nebula condensation and the chondritic composition of planetary bodies.’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 85: 114-141.

    Articles in Journals
    • Burkhardt C, Kleine T, Oberli F, Pack A, Bourdon B, Wieler R. . ‘Molybdenum isotope anomalies in meteorites: Constraints on solar nebula evolution and origin of the Earth.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 312: 390-400. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.10.010.
    • Kleine T. . ‘Earth's patchy late veneer.’ NATURE 477, No. 7363: 168-169. doi: 10.1038/477168a.
    • Kleine T, Rudge JF. . ‘Chronometry of Meteorites and the Formation of the Earth and Moon.’ Elements 7: 41-46. doi: 10.2113/gselements.7.1.41.
    Articles in Encyclopedia
    • Kleine Thorsten. . ‘Radiogenic Isotopes.’ In Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, edited by Gargaud M., Amils R., Cernicharo Quintanilla J., Cleaves II H.J., Irvine W.M., Pinti D., Viso M.. Springer.

    Articles in Journals
    • Nimmo F, O'Brien DP, Kleine T. . ‘Tungsten isotopic evolution during late-stage accretion: Constraints on Earth-Moon equilibration.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 292: 363-370. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2010.02.003.
    • Rudge JF, Kleine T, Bourdon B. . ‘Broad bounds on Earth's accretion and core formation constrained by geochemical models.’ Nature Geoscience 3: 439-443. doi: 10.1038/ngeo872.
    Articles in Edited Books
    • Caro Guillaume, Kleine Thorsten. . ‘Extint radionuclides and the earliest differentiation of the Earth and Moon.’ In Timescales of Magmatic Processes: From Core to Atmosphere, edited by Dossetto A., Turner S.P., Van Orman J.A., 9-51. Wiley-Blackwell.

    • Fitoussi C, Bourdon B, Kleine T, Oberli F, Reynolds BC. . ‘Si isotope systematics of meteorites and terrestrial peridotites: implications for Mg/Si fractionation in the solar nebula and for Si in the Earth's core.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 287, No. 1-2: 77-85. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2009.07.038.
    • Kleine T, Touboul M, Bourdon B, Nimmo F, Mezger K, Palme H, Jacobsen SB, Yin QZ, Halliday AN. . ‘Hf-W chronology of the accretion and early evolution of asteroids and terrestrial planets.’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, No. 17: 5150-5188. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2008.11.047.
    • Nyquist LE, Kleine T, Shih CY, Reese YD. . ‘The distribution of short-lived radioisotopes in the early solar system and the chronology of asteroid accretion, differentiation, and secondary mineralization.’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, No. 17: 5115-5136. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2008.12.031.
    • Touboul M, Kleine T, Bourdon B, Palme H, Wieler R. . ‘Tungsten isotopes in ferroan anorthosites: Implications for the age of the Moon and lifetime of its magma ocean.’ Icarus 199, No. 2: 245-249. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.11.018.
    • Touboul M, Kleine T, Bourdon B, Van Orman JA, Maden C, Zipfel J. . ‘Hf-W thermochronometry: II. Accretion and thermal history of the acapulcoite-lodranite parent body.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 284, No. 1-2: 168-178. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2009.04.022.

    Articles in Journals
    • Bourdon B, Touboul M, Caro G, Kleine T. . ‘Early differentiation of the Earth and the Moon.’ Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society London A- Mathematical Sciences 366, No. 1883: 4105-4128. doi: 10.1098/rsta.2008.0125.
    • Burkhardt C, Kleine T, Bourdon B, Palme H, Zipfel J, Friedrich JM, Ebel DS. . ‘Hf-W mineral isochron for Ca,Al-rich inclusions: Age of the solar system and the timing of core formation in planetesimals.’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72, No. 24: 6177-6197. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2008.10.023.
    • Kleine T, Touboul M, Van Orman JA, Bourdon B, Maden C, Mezger K, Halliday AN. . ‘Hf-W thermochronometry: Closure temperature and constraints on the accretion and cooling history of the H chondrite parent body.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 270, No. 1-2: 106-118. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.03.013.
    Articles in Edited Books
    • Kleine Thorsten. . ‘Hf-W chronometry of planetary accretion and differentiation.’ In Chemical Evolution across Space and Time: From the Big Bang to Prebiotic Chemistry, edited by Zaikowski L., Friedrich J.. Oxford University Press.

    • Markowski A, Quitte G, Kleine T, Halliday AN, Bizzarro M, Irving AJ. . ‘Hafnium-tungsten chronometry of angrites and the earliest evolution of planetary objects.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 262, No. 1-2: 214-229. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.07.035.
    • Nebel O, Munker C, Nebel-Jacobsen YJ, Kleine T, Mezger K, Mortimer N. . ‘Hf-Nd-Pb isotope evidence from Permian arc rocks for the long-term presence of the Indian-Pacific mantle boundary in the SW Pacific.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 254, No. 3-4: 377-392. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2006.11.046.
    • Nimmo F, Kleine T. . ‘How rapidly did Mars accrete? Uncertainties in the Hf-W timing of core formation.’ ICARUS 191, No. 2: 497-504. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.05.002.
    • Touboul M, Kleine T, Bourdon B, Palme H, Wieler R. . ‘Late formation and prolonged differentiation of the Moon inferred from W isotopes in lunar metals.’ Nature 450, No. 7173: 1206-1209. doi: 10.1038/nature06428.

    Articles in Journals
    • Markowski A, Quitte G, Halliday AN, Kleine T. . ‘Tungsten isotopic compositions of iron meteorites: Chronological constraints vs. cosmogenic effects.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 242, No. 1-2: 1-15. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2005.11.048.
    Articles in Edited Books
    • Halliday Alex N., Kleine Thorsten. . ‘Meteorites and the Timing, Mechanisms, and Conditions of Terrestrial Planet Accretion and Early Differentiation.’ In Meteorites and the Early Solar System II, edited by Lauretta D.S., McSween H.Y., 775-801. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.

    • Kleine T, Mezger K, Palme H, Scherer E, Munker C. . ‘The W isotope composition of eucrite metals: constraints on the timing and cause of the thermal metamorphism of basaltic eucrites.’ EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS 231, No. 1-2: 41-52. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2004.12.016.
    • Kleine T, Mezger K, Palme H, Scherer E, Munker C. . ‘Early core formation in asteroids and late accretion of chondrite parent bodies: Evidence from Hf-182-W-182 in CAIs, metal-rich chondrites, and iron meteorites.’ GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA 69, No. 24: 5805-5818. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2005.07.012.
    • Kleine T, Palme H, Mezger M, Halliday AN. . ‘Hf-W chronometry of lunar metals and the age and early differentiation of the Moon.’ Science 310, No. 5754: 1671-1674. doi: 10.1126/science.1118842.

    • Kleine T, Mezger K, Münker C, Palme H, Bischoff A. . ‘182Hf-182W isotope systematics of chondrites, eucrites, and martian meteorites: Chronology of core formation and early mantle differentiation in Vesta and Mars.’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68, No. 13: 2935-2946. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2004.01.009.
    • Kleine T, Mezger K, Palme H, Munker C. . ‘The W isotope evolution of the bulk silicate Earth: constraints on the timing and mechanisms of core formation and accretion.’ Earth and Planetary Science Letters 228, No. 1-2: 109-123. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2004.09.023.
    • Kleine T, Mezger K, Zimmermann U, Munker G, Bahlburg H. . ‘Crustal evolution along the Early Ordovician proto-Andean margin of Gondwana: Trace element and isotope evidence from the Complejo Igneo Pocitos (northwest Argentina).’ Journal of Geology 112, No. 5: 503-520. doi: 10.1086/422663.

    • Munker C, Pfander JA, Weyer S, Buchl A, Kleine T, Mezger K. . ‘Evolution of planetary cores and the earth-moon system from Nb/Ta systematics.’ Science 301, No. 5629: 84-87. doi: 10.1126/science.1084662.

    • Kleine T, Munker C, Mezger K, Palme H. . ‘Rapid accretion and early core formation on asteroids and the terrestrial planets from Hf-W chronometry.’ Nature 418, No. 6901: 952-955. doi: 10.1038/nature00982.