Meas. Sci. Technol.29, 065901 (2018)
Inverse photoemission is the most versatile experimental tool to study the unoccupied electronic structure at surfaces of solids. Typically, the experiments are performed in the isochromat mode with bandpass photon detectors. For gas-filled counters, the bandpass behavior is realized by the combination of the photoionization threshold of the counting gas as the high-pass filter and the ultraviolet transmission cutoff of an alkaline earth fluoride entrance window as the low-pass filter. The transmission characteristics of the entrance window determine the optical bandpass. The performance of the counter depends on the composition of the detection gas and the fill-gas pressure, the readout electronics and the counter geometry. For the well-known combination of acetone and CaF2, the detector can be operated in proportional and Geiger–Müller modes. In this work, we review aspects concerning the working principles, the counter construction and the read-out electronics. We identify optimum working parameters and provide a step-by-step recipe how to build, install and operate the device.
Phys. Rev. B 97, 165130 (2018)
Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are a focus of current research due to their fascinating optical and electronic properties with possible technical applications. ReSe2 is an interesting material of the TMDC family, with unique anisotropic properties originating from its distorted 1T structure (1T '). To develop a fundamental understanding of the optical and electric properties, we studied the underlying electronic structure with angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) as well as band-structure calculations within the density functional theory (DFT)–local density approximation (LDA) and GdW approximations. We identified the ΓM1 direction, which is perpendicular to the a axis, as a distinct direction in k space with the smallest bandwidth of the highest valence band. Using photon-energy-dependent ARPES, two valence band maxima are identified within experimental limits of about 50 meV: one at the high-symmetry point Z, and a second one at a non-high-symmetry point in the Brillouin zone. Thus, the position in k space of the global valence band maximum is undecided experimentally. Theoretically, an indirect band gap is predicted on a DFT-LDA level, while quasiparticle corrections lead to a direct band gap at the Z point.
In: Wandelt, K., (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Interfacial Chemistry: Surface Science and Electrochemistry, vol.2, pp 131–137 (2018).
Angle-resolved photoemission and inverse photoemission provide direct experimental access to the occupied and unoccupied electronic structure E(k) of solid surfaces, respectively. The additional quantum number “spin” carries valuable information about exchange interaction in magnetically ordered systems and about spin–orbit interaction, which becomes especially important in systems with heavy elements. The experiments aim at determining the intrinsic spin polarization of the electronic states under investigation—but is this what is measured? While in ferromagnets the magnetization direction serves as the spin quantization axis, the situation is more complex in spin–orbit-influenced systems. First, spin–orbit interaction leads to k-dependent spin textures of the electronic states, called spin-momentum locking. Second, the experimental measurement of spin polarization by photoemission and inverse photoemission contains additional, even k-independent spin effects—depending on the orbital composition of the state under investigation in combination with the choice of experimental parameters. Is the electron spin polarization in or out of control? On the one hand, examples show that it is not straightforward to determine the spin polarization of electronic states. On the other hand, spin-resolved measurements performed with deliberately chosen geometries can provide comprehensive information about the orbital symmetries of the involved states. The (110) surface of tungsten serves as a textbook example for “controlling” the electron spin polarization.