The project examines the conflicts surrounding the relationship between the state and the Church in 19th century Mexico. Mexico's first constitution of 1824 declared Catholicism the only religion of the state, but the role of the Catholic Church in society and politics had been charged with conflict since the late colonial period, as illustrated e.g. by the participation of well-known priests in the struggle for independence. Independence had a direct influence on the clergy because Mexico claimed the right of patronage. The number of clerics dropped significantly. In addition, liberals tried to restrict the rights of the Church, which repeatedly resulted in violent conflicts. The conflicts over the role of religion and the Catholic Church have so far been dealt with from the viewpoint of the state and the elites. The project, instead, takes into account the various groups involved in the conflicts. More specifically, it focuses on priests in small villages and rural communities as well as communities that took a stand on the role of the Church and religion in society. This approach allows getting to the bottom of the entanglements between religion and politics and the change through processes of dis-entanglement in politics (independence) as well as between the state and the Church.