Prof. Dr.  Gerald Echterhoff
Prof. Dr. Gerald Echterhoff
Room 217a
Fliednerstr. 21
Tel: +49 251 83-34386
Consultation hours: upon agreement
  • Curriculum Vitae

    since 9/2010

    Professor of Social Psychology, Department of Psychology, Westfälische Wilhelms University Münster


    Professor of Psychology, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen


    Visiting Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Cologne 


    Habilitation at Bielefeld University, including venia legendi for Psychology

    2004-2008 Assistant Professor/Lecturer, Department of Psychology, Bielefeld University, Germany
    2002-2004 Research and Teaching Associate Psychological Institute, University of Cologne, Germany
    2001 Postdoctoral Fellow and Visiting Scholar, Columbia University, New York City
    2000 Ph.D. in Psychology, New School for Social Research, New York City
    1997-2000 Ph.D. Program in Psychology (experimental cognitive), New School for Social Research, dissertation research
    1998 M.A. (Master of Arts) in General Psychology, New School for Social Research, New York City
    1996 Diploma in Psychology, University of Cologne with honors

  • Teaching



    • Introduction to Social Psychology (Lecture)
    • Communication, Persuasion, and Conflict (Lecture)
    • Key Studies in Social Psychology ("Science in Context" seminar with jigsaw puzzle)
    • Social Judgment
    • Social Influence
    • Attitudes and Social Cognition
    • Memory in a Social Context
    • Interpersonal Communication and Interaction
    • Social Cognition and Attribution
    • Statistics (Lecture Class and Seminars)
  • Activities 

    • Reviewer for various scienctific journals including: "Science, Perspectives on Psychological Science, Psychological Science, Cognition, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Social Psychological and Personality Science, Social Cognition, Social Influence, European Journal of Social Psychology, British Journal of Social Psychology, Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Memory & Cognition, Acta Psychologica, Memory Studies, Memory, Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, Journal of Personality, Social Psychology, Journal of Economic Psychology"
    • Associate Editor for the European Journal of Social Psychology (EJSP) (2012-2015), the flagship journal of the European Association of Social Psychology (EASP).
    • Associate Editor for the international journal Social Psychology  (2011-2013).  
    • Referee for the Establishment of Graduate Schools for the German Research Foundation (DFG).
    • Guest Editor for a Special Issue on “Shared Reality: Antecedents, Processes, and Consequences” in Social Cognition (2010).
    • Guest Editor (with William Hirst) for a Special Issue on „Social Influence on Memory“ in Social Psychology - Guest Editorial (2009).
    • Reviewer for the National Science Foundation (NSF) of the USA, the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG; individual grant proposals), the German Psychological Society (DGPs), the Tyrolean Science Fund (Tiroler Wissenschaftsfond), the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), the German Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development, the German National Adacemic Foundation (Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes), the Friedrich-Ebert Foundation, the Cusanuswerk Scholarship Foundation.
    • Reviewer for various scientific journals including Science, Psychological Science, Perspectives on Psychological Science, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,  Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Social Cognition, European Journal of Social Psychology, Social Psychology, Memory & Cognition, Memory, Acta Psychologica, Journal of Personality, Journal of Economic Psychology.
    • Workshops on "Psychological strategies for academic success: Project and time management".


  • Journal Articles

    • Schmalbach, B., Hennemuth, L., & Echterhoff, G. (2019). A Tool for Assessing the Experience of Shared Reality: Validation of the German SR-T. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 832. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00832
    • Knausenberger, J.& Echterhoff, G. (in press). I belong but I’m still sad: Reminders of Facebook increase feelings of belonging but do not facilitate coping with sadness. PLoS One.
    • Echterhoff, G., & Higgins, E.T. (2018). Shared reality: Construct and mechanisms. Current Opinion in Psychology, 23, A1-A4. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2018.09.003
    • Wagner, U., & Echterhoff, G. (2018). When does oxytocin affect human memory endocing? The role of social context and individual attachment style. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12, 349. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2018.00349
    • Echterhoff, G., & Schmalbach, B. (2018). How shared reality is created in interpersonal communication. Current Opinion in Psychology, 23, 57-61. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.12.005
    • Knausenberger, J., & Echterhoff, G. (2018). Recovering from social exclusion: The interplay of subtle Facebook reminders and collectivistic orientation. Computers in Human Behavior, 78, 298-305. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.10.012
    • Giesen, A., & Echterhoff, G. (2017). Do I really feel your pain? Comparing the effects of observed and personal ostracism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletindoi: 10.1177/0146167217744524
    • Wagner, U., Giesen, A. , Knausenberger, J., & Echterhoff, G. (2017). The joint action effect on memory as a social phenomenon: The role of cued attention and psychological distance. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1697. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01697
    • Hirst, W. & Echterhoff, G. (in press). There is more to episodic memory than epistemic assertion: The role of social bonds and interpersonal connection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. doi:10.1017/S0140525X17001388
    • Echterhoff, G. & Higgins, E. T. (2017). Creating shared reality in interpersonal and intergroup communication: The role of epistemic processes and their interplay. European Review of Social Psychology, 28, 175-226. doi: 10.1080/10463283.2017.1333315
    • Echterhoff, G., Kopietz, R., & Higgins, E.T. (2017). Shared reality in intergroup communication: Increasing the epistemic authority of an out-group audience. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 146, 806-825. doi: 10.1037/xge0000289
    • Lindner, I., Schain, C., & Echterhoff, G. (2016). Other-self confusions in action memory: The role of motor processes. Cognition, 149, 67-76. doi: 710.1016/j.cognition.2016.01.003
    • Bebermeier, S., Echterhoff, G., Bohner, G., & Hellmann, J.H. (2015). The generalization of shared reality: When communication about one target shapes evaluations of other targets. European Journal of Social Psychology45, 623-640. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2115
    • Lindner, I. & Echterhoff, G. (2015). Imagination inflation in the mirror: Can imagining others’ actions induce false memories of self-performance? Acta Psychologica158, 51-60. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2015.03.008
    • Knausenberger, J., Hellmann, J. H., & Echterhoff, G. (2015). When virtual contact is all you need: Subtle reminders of Facebook preempt social-contact restoration after exclusion. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 279-284. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2035
    • Pierucci, S., Echterhoff, G., Marchal, C., & Klein, O. (2014). Creating shared reality about ambiguous sexual harassment: The role of stimulus ambiguity in audience-tuning effects on memory. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3, 300-306. doi: 10.1016/j.jarmac.2014.07.007
    • Echterhoff, G. & Kopietz, R. (2014). Contribution to Alogna et al. Registered replication report: Schooler & Engstler-Schooler (1990). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9, 556-578. doi: 10.1177/1745691614545653
    • Bell, R., Schain, C., & Echterhoff, G. (2014). How selfish is memory for cheaters? Evidence for moral and egoistic biases. Cognition, 132, 437-442. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2014.05.001
    • Pfundmair, M., Aydin, N., Frey, D., & Echterhoff, G. (2014). The interplay of oxytocin and collectivistic orientation shields against negative effects of ostracism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55, 246-251. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2014.07.016
    • Kopietz, R., & Echterhoff, G. (2014). Remembering the 2006 Football World Cup in Germany: Epistemic and social consequences of perceived memory sharedness. Memory Studies, 7, 298-313. doi: 10.1177/1750698014530620
    • Echterhoff, G. (2014). Achieving commonality in interpersonal communication: Shared reality and memory processes. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 17, 104-107. doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12048
    • Echterhoff, G. (2013). How communication on the Internet affects memory and shared reality: Talking heads online. Psychological Inquiry, 24, 297-300. doi: 10.1080/1047840X.2013.842878
    • Hellmann, J. H., Echterhoff, G., & Thoben, D. F. (2013). Metaphor in embodied cognition is more than just combining two related concepts: A comment on Wilson and Golonka (2013). Frontiers in Psychology: Cognitive Science, 4doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00201
    • Hellmann, J. H., Thoben, D. F., & Echterhoff, G. (2013). The sweet taste of revenge: Gustatory experience induces metaphor-consistent judgments of a harmful act. Social Cognition, 31, 531-542. doi: 10.1521/soco.2013.31.5.531
    • Echterhoff, G., Kopietz, R., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Adjusting shared reality: Communicators' memory changes as their connection with their audience changes. Social Cognition, 31, 162-186. doi: 10.1521/soco.2013.31.2.162
    • Echterhoff, G. (2013). The role of action in verbal communication and shared reality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36, 354-355. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X12002567
    • Lindner, I., Schain, C., Kopietz, R., & Echterhoff, G. (2012). When do we confuse self and other in action memory? Reduced false memories of self-performance after observing actions by an out-group versus in-group actor. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 467.   doi: 648 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00467
    • Schain, C., Lindner, I., Beck, F. & Echterhoff, G. (2012). Looking at the actor's face: Identity cues and attentional focus in false memories of action performance from observation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 1201-1204. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2012.04.003
    • Echterhoff, G. & Wolf, O. T. (2012). The stressed eyewitness: The interaction of thematic arousal and post-event stress in memory for central and peripheral event information. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 6.  doi:10.3389/fnint.2012.00057
    • Hirst, W., & Echterhoff, G. (2012). Remembering in conversations: The social sharing and reshaping of memories. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 55-69.   Online   e-print (for personal use only)
      Please note: I am pleased to provide complimentary one-time access to my Annual Reviews article as a PDF file, for your own personal use. Any further/multiple distribution, publication, or commercial usage of this copyrighted material would require submission of a permission request addressed to the Copyright Clearance Center.
    • Hellmann, J. H., Echterhoff, G., Kopietz, R., Niemeier, S., & Memon, A. (2011). Talking about visually perceived events: Communication effects on eyewitness memory. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 658-671. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.796
    • Echterhoff, G. (2011). The pervasiveness of memory. Culture & Psychology, 17(1), 3-9.   doi: 10.1177/1354067X10388856
    • Bohner, G., Echterhoff, G., Glass, C., Patrzek, J., & Lampridis, E. (2010). Distress in response to a sibling's partner's infidelities: Testing evolutionary versus socio-cultural hypotheses. Social Psychology, 41, 223- 229.   doi: 10.1027/1864-9335/a000030
    • Lindner, I., Echterhoff, G., Davidson, P. S. R., & Brand, M. (2010). Observation inflation: Your actions become mine. Psychological Science, 21, 1291-1299.   doi: 10.1177/0956797610379860
    • Echterhoff, G. (2010). Shared reality: Antecedents, processes, consequences. Social Cognition, 40, 273–276.   doi: 10.1521/soco.2010.28.3.273
    • Kopietz, R., Hellmann, J. H., Higgins, E. T., & Echterhoff, G. (2010). Shared-reality effects on memory: Communicating to fulfill epistemic needs. Social Cognition, 28, 353–378.  doi: 10.1521/soco.2010.28.3.353
    • Echterhoff, G., Higgins, E. T., & Levine, J. M. (2009). Shared reality: Experiencing commonality with others’ inner states about the world. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 496-521.   doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01161.x
    • Echterhoff, G., Lang, S., Krämer, N. & Higgins, E. T. (2009). Audience-tuning effects on communicators’ memory: The role of audience status in sharing reality. Social Psychology, 40, 150-163.   doi: 10.1027/1864-9335.40.3.150
    • Kopietz, R., Echterhoff, G., Niemeier, S., Hellmann, J. H., & Memon, A. (2009). Audience-congruent biases in eyewitness memory and judgment: Influences of a co- witness’ liking for a suspect. Social Psychology, 40, 138-149.   doi: 10.1027/1864-9335.40.3.138
    • Echterhoff, G., & Hirst, W. (2009). Social influence on memory. Social Psychology, 40, 106-110.   doi: 10.1027/1864-9335.40.3.106
    • Echterhoff, G., Higgins, E. T., Kopietz, R. & Groll, S. (2008). How communication goals determine when audience tuning biases memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137, 3-21.  doi: 10.1037/0096-3445.137.1.3
    • Hirst, W., & Echterhoff, G. (2008). Creating shared memories in conversation: Toward a psychology of collective memory. Social Research, 75, 183-216.
    • Echterhoff, G., Groll, S., & Hirst, W. (2007). Tainted truth: Overcorrection for misinformation influence on eyewitness memory. Social Cognition, 25, 367-409.   doi: 10.1521/soco.2007.25.3.367
    • Hellmann, J. H., Kopietz, R., & Echterhoff, G. (2007). Shared memories, shared beliefs: The formation and use of joint representations in social interaction. European Bulletin of Social Psychology, 19, 40-46.
    • Higgins, E. T., Echterhoff, G., Crespillo, R., & Kopietz, R. (2007). Effects of communication on social knowledge: Sharing reality with individual vs. group audiences. Japanese Psychological Research, 49, 89-99.   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5884.2007.00336.x
    • Echterhoff, G., Bohner, G., & Siebler, F. (2006). Social Robotics und Mensch-Maschine Interaktion: Aktuelle Forschung und Relevanz für die Sozialpsychologie. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 37, 219-231.   doi: 10.1024/0044-3514.37.4.219
    • Echterhoff, G., & Hirst, W. (2006). Thinking about memories for everyday and shocking events: Do people use ease-of-retrieval cues in memory judgments? Memory & Cognition, 34, 763-775.   doi: 10.3758/BF03193424
    • Echterhoff, G. (2005). Die Rahmen von Erinnerungen: Das gedächtnistheoretische Werk von Maurice Halbwachs aus kognitions- und sozialpsychologischer Perspektive. Jahrbuch für Soziologiegeschichte, 16, 247-270.
    • Echterhoff, G., Higgins, E. T. & Groll, S. (2005). Audience-tuning effects on memory: The role of shared reality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 257-276.   doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.89.3.257
    • Echterhoff, G., Hirst, W. & Hussy, W. (2005). How eyewitnesses resist misinformation: Social postwarnings and the monitoring of memory characteristics. Memory & Cognition, 33, 770-782.   doi: 10.3758/BF03193073
    • Echterhoff, G. (2004). Rezension zu „Maurice Halbwachs: Aspekte des Werks“, hrsg. von Stephan Egger. Historische Literatur, 2, 424-427.  
    • Echterhoff, G., & Hussy, W. (2004). Strategies of source attribution: Semantic features and trace strength as cues to the origin of memories. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 63, 93-106.   doi: 10.1024/1421-0185.63.2.93
    • Echterhoff, G. & Straub, J. (2004). Narrative Psychologie: Facetten eines Forschungsprogramms (Teil 2). Handlung Kultur Interpretation, Zeitschrift für Sozial- und Kulturwissenschaften, 13, 151-186.
    • Echterhoff, G. & Straub, J. (2003). Narrative Psychologie: Facetten eines Forschungsprogramms (Teil 1). Handlung Kultur Interpretation, Zeitschrift für Sozial- und Kulturwissenschaften, 12, 317-342.
    • Hussy, W. & Echterhoff, G. (1997). Cognitive psychology in the German-speaking countries. World Psychology, 3 (special edition, Psychology in the German-speaking countries, ed. by U. P. Gielen & J. Bredenkamp), 325-376.

  •  Chapters

    • Echterhoff, G. & Kopietz, R. (2018). The socially shared nature of memory: From joint encoding to communication. In M. Meade, A. Barnier, C. Harris, & J. Sutton (Eds.), Collaborative remembering: How remembering with others influences memory (pp. 113-134). Oxford University Press.
    • Echterhoff, G. (2017). Shared reality theory. In B.S. Turner (Ed.), Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Theory(pp. 550-554) . New York: Wiley. doi: 10.1002/9781118430873.est0339
    • Kopietz, R., & Echterhoff, G. (2016). Einstellungen [Attitudes]. In D. Frey & H.-W. Bierhoff (Eds.), Soziale Motive und soziale Einstellungen (Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Serie Sozialpsychologie, Vol. 2), pp 581-616. [Social motives and social attitudes. Encyclopedia of Psychology: Social Psychology series]. Göttingen: Hogrefe. doi:
    • Echterhoff, G. (2012). Shared-reality theory. In P. A. M. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology (pp. 180-199). London: Sage.
    • Echterhoff, G. (2011). Gedächtnis. In Deutscher Verein für öffentliche und private Fürsorge (Ed.), Fachlexikon der sozialen Arbeit (7th ed.). Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos.
    • Echterhoff, G., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). How communication shapes memory: Shared reality and implications for culture. In G. R. Semin & G. Echterhoff (Eds.), Grounding sociality: Neurons, minds, and culture (pp. 115-146). New York: Psychology Press.
    • Semin, G. R., & Echterhoff, G. (2010). From neurons to shared cognition and culture. In G. R. Semin & G. Echterhoff (Eds.), Grounding sociality: Neurons, minds, and culture (pp. 1-9) New York: Psychology Press.
    • Echterhoff, G. (2010). Das kommunikative Gedächtnis. In A. Eichenberg, C. Gudehus & H. Welzer (Eds.), Gedächtnis und Erinnerung: Ein interdisziplinäres Handbuch. Stuttgart, Germany: Verlag J. B. Metzler.
    • Echterhoff, G. (2008). Language and memory: Social and cognitive processes. In A. Nünning & A. Erll (Eds.), Cultural memory studies. An international and interdisciplinary handbook (pp. 263-274). Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.
    • Echterhoff, G. (2007). Gedächtnis. In Deutscher Verein für öffentliche und private Fürsorge (Ed.), Fachlexikon der sozialen Arbeit (6th ed.). Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos.
    • Echterhoff, G., & Neumann, B. (2007). Projekt- und Zeitmanagement in der Promotionsphase: Organisatorische und psychologische Strategien. In A. Nünning & R. Sommer (Eds.), Metzler Handbuch Promotion. Stuttgart, Germany: Metzler.
    • Echterhoff, G., Heinen, S., & Neumann, B. (2007). Zusatzqualifikationen in der Promotion: Motivationale und soziale Faktoren. In A. Nünning & R. Sommer (Eds.), Metzler Handbuch Promotion. Stuttgart, Germany: Metzler.
    • Echterhoff, G. (2004). Das Außen des Erinnerns: Was vermittelt individuelles und kollektives Gedächtnis? In A. Erll & A. Nünning (Eds.), Medien des kollektiven Gedächtnisses: Konstruktivität   Historizität – Kulturspezifität(pp. 53-75). Berlin: de Gruyter.
    • Echterhoff, G. & Straub, J. (2004). Narrative Psychologie. In G. Jüttemann (Ed.), Psychologie als Humanwissenschaft: Ein Handbuch (pp. 102-133). Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
    • Echterhoff, G. & Hirst, W. (2002). Remembering in a social context: A conversational view of the study of memory. In G. Echterhoff & M. Saar (Eds.), Kontexte und Kulturen des Erinnerns: Maurice Halbwachs und das Paradigma des kollektiven Gedächtnisses (pp. 75-101). Constance, Germany: Universitätsverlag Konstanz.
    • Echterhoff, G. (2002). Geschichten in der Psychologie: Die Erforschung narrativ geleiteter Informationsverarbeitung. In V. Nünning & A. Nünning (Eds.), Erzähltheorie transgenerisch, intermedial, interdisziplinär (pp. 265-290). Trier, Germany: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier.
    • Echterhoff, G. (2002). Distanzierung und ihre zeitlichen Voraussetzungen: Psychologische Unterscheidungen und psychoanalytische Kritik. In G. Echterhoff & M. Eggers (Hrsg.), Der Stoff, an dem wir hängen: Faszination und Selektion von Material in den Kulturwissenschaften (pp. 67-84). Würzburg, Germany: Könighausen & Neumann.
    • Echterhoff, G. (2001). Entries on „Kommunikation “, „False Memory“, „Encodierung und Decodierung“, „Zeugenaussage“, „Zeit in der Psychologie“. In N. Pethes & J. Ruchatz (Eds.), Gedächtnis und Erinnerung. Ein interdisziplinäres Lexikon. Reinbek, Germany: Rowohlt.
  • Books

    • Hussy, W., Schreier, M., & Echterhoff, G. (2013). Forschungsmethoden in Psychologie und Sozialwissenschaften [Research methods in psychology and the social sciences] (2nd, revised edition). Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.
      Information from the publisher (in German) 
    • Semin, G., & G. Echterhoff (Eds.) (2010). Grounding sociality: Neurons, minds, and culture. New York: Psychology Press.
    • Hussy, W., Schreier, M., & Echterhoff, G. (2010). Forschungsmethoden in Psychologie und Sozialwissenschaften [Research methods in psychology and the social sciences]. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag. 
    • Echterhoff, G. & Neumann, B. (2006). Projekt- und Zeitmanagement: Organisatorische und psychologische Strategien für erfolgreiches Studieren [Project and time management: Planning and psychological strategies for study success] (Reihe Uni-Wissen). Stuttgart, Germany: Klett.
    • Echterhoff, G. & Saar, M. (Eds.). (2002). Kontexte und Kulturen des Erinnerns: Maurice Halbwachs und das Paradigma des kollektiven Gedächtnisses [Contexts and cultures of remembering: Maurice Halbwachs and the paradigm of collective memory]. Constance, Germany: Universitätsverlag Konstanz.
    • Echterhoff, G. & Eggers, M. (Hrsg.). (2002). Der Stoff, an dem wir hängen: Faszination und Selektion von Material in kulturwissenschaftlicher Arbeit [Selecting the „Stuff” of Research: Theory of Science in Cultural Studies and the Social Sciences]. Würzburg: Könighausen & Neumann.