• M.S. in experimental psychology, 1971, Tulane, New Orleans
  • Dipl.-Psych., 1972, LMU, München
  • Dr. phil., 1975, LMU, München
  • Habilitation für Psychologie, 1981 RWTH, Aachen

Positions (academic)

  • Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter, Psychologie, RWTH, 1977-1982
  • Associate Professor of Quantitative Psychologie, Purdue University, 1982/3
  • Prof. für Psych. Methoden und Angew. Psychologie, JLU, 1983-1990
  • Wissenschaftlicher Leiter, ZUMA, 1990-1997
  • Prof. für Psych. Methoden und Angewandte Psychologie, JLU, 1997-2000
  • Stiftungsprofessur für angewandte psychologische Methodik (JLU) und GESIS (1999-2012)
  • Various visiting professorships (e.g., U of M, Hebrew University, Purdue)

Positions (non-academic)

  • Founding Partner & Director Research & Development, Human Resources Consulting, 1987-2006
  • Kenexa Germany GmbH: Executive Consultant, 2008-2009

Research interests

  • Scaling
  • Employee Surveys
  • Attitudes and values

Selected Publications


  •  Borg. I. & Shve. S, (1995). Facet theory: Form and content. Newbury Park: Sage(Advanced Quantitative Methods Series).
  • Borg, I. & Groenen, P.J.F. (2005). Modern multidimensional scaling: Theory and applications (2nd edition). New York: Springer.
  • Borg, I. & Staufenbiel, T. (2007). Theorien und Methoden der Skalierung: Ein Lehrbuch. Bern: Huber. (4. Auflage).
  • Borg, I., with Masterangelo, P. (2008). Employee surveys in management. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe-Huber.
  • Borg, I., Groenen, P.J.F. & Mair, P. (2013). Applied multidimensional scaling. New York: Springer.
  • Borg, I. (2014). Mitarbeiterbefragungen in der Praxis. Göttingen: Hogrefe.

Chapters (Books)

  • Borg, I. (1977). Geometric representations of individual differences. In J.C. Lingoes (Ed.) Geometric Representations of Relatonal Data. Ann Arbor, Mich.; Mathesis Press (pp. 609-655).
  • Schönemann, P.H. & Borg, I. (1983). Grundlagen der metrischen mehrdimensionalen Skaliermethoden. In H. Feger & J. Bredenkamp (Eds.) Enzyklopädie der Psychologie: Messen und Testen. Göttingen: Hogrefe (pp.257-345).
  • Borg, I. & Staufenbiel, T. (1991). Ein idiographisches Modell und Messverfahren für Arbeitswerte und Arbeitszufriedenheit. In L. Fischer (Ed.) Arbeitszufriedenheit. Stuttgart: Verlag für angewandte Psychologie (pp.157-175)
  • Borg, I., Staufenbiel, T. & Pritchard, R.D. (1995). Hierarchies of objectives in productivity management: Combining features of HISYS and ProMES. In R.D. Pritchard (Ed.) Productivity measurement and improvement: Organizational case studies (pp.312-324). Westport, CT: Praeger.
  • Borg, I. (2006). Arbeitswerte, Arbeitszufriedenheit und ihr Zusammenhang. In L. Fischer (Ed.), Arbeitszufriedenheit: Konzepte und empirische Befunde (pp.61-79). Göttingen: Hogrefe.
  • Borg, I. (2001). Multidimensional scaling. In M. Lovric (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Statistical Science (pp. 875-878). New York: Springer.
  • Groenen, P. & Borg, I. (2015). Multidimensonal scaling In J.D. Wright (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral and Science. 2nd edition.

Articles (Journals)

  • Borg, I. & Lingoes, J.C. (1978). What weights should weights have in individual differences scaling? Qualitiy and Quantitiy, 12, 223-237.
  • Lingoes, J.C. & Borg, I. (1978). A direct approach to individual differences scaling using increasingly complex transformations. Psychometrika, 43, 491-519.
  • Borg, I. & Lingoes, J.C. (1980). A model and algorithm für multidimensonal scaling with external constraints on the distances. Psychometrika, 45, 25-38.
  • Borg, I., Schönemann, P.H. & Leutner, D. (1982). Merkmalsüberdeterminierung und andere Artefakte bei der Wahrnehmung einfacher geometrischer Figuren. Zeitschrift für experimentelle und angewandte Psychologie, 24, 531-544.
  • Lingoes, J.C. & Borg, I. (1983). A quasi-statistical model for choosing between alternative configurations derived from ordinally constrained data. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 36, 36-53.
  • Borg, I. & Leutner, D. (1983). Dimensional models for the perception of rectangles. Perception and Psychophysics, 34, 257-269.
  • Borg, I. & Leutner, D. (1985). Measuring the similarity of MDS configurations. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 20, 325-334.
  • Borg, I. (1986). A cross-cultural replication on Elizur's facets of work values. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 21, 401-410.
  • Galinat, W. & Borg, I. (1987). On symbolic temporal information: Beliefs about the experience of duration. Memory and Cognition, 15, 308-317.
  • Borg, I. & Tremmel, L. (1988). Compression effects in pairwise ratio scaling. Methodika, 2. 1-15.
  • Borg, I. (1990). Multiple facetizations of work values. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 39, 401-412.
  • Borg, I. (1991). On the relationship between importance and satisfaction ratings on job facets. Applied Psychology, 40, 81-92.
  • Borg, I. & Staufenbiel, T. (1992). The performance of snow flakes, suns and factorial suns in the graphical representation of multivariate data. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 27, 43-55.
  • Borg, I. & Elizur, D. (1992). Job insecurity: Correlates and measurement. International Journal of Manpower, 13, 13-26.
  • Borg, I. & Braun, M. (1996). Work values in East and West Germany: Different weights but identical structures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 541-555.
  • Borg, I., Braun, M. & Baumgärtner, M. (2008). Attitudes of demographic item non-respondents in employee surveys. International Journal of Manpower, 29, 146-160.
  • Borg, I., Groenen, P., Jehn, K., Bilsky, W. & Schwartz, S. (2011). Embedding the organizational culture profile into Schwartz's theory of universals in values. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 10, 1-12.
  • Borg, I & Zuell, C. (2012). Write-in comments in employee surveys: Who writes what kind of comment? International Journal of Manpower, 33, 206-220.