Battery Team
© IfbM

 Battery Research

The strategic battery team, consisting of researchers of the Helmholtz Institute Münster and the University of Münster, develops strategic perspectives on battery research. The research area includes cost, supply, and environmental aspects along various steps of the value chain of both, state-of-the-art and future battery technologies.

Cost modeling
After analyzing the field of cost estimation (1), the team developed bottom-up material and process cost models allowing for detailed estimation of battery costs on cell and pack level. The models have so far been used to evaluate cost impacts of different battery materials (2) and to investigate optimal battery plant location in the EU (3). In order to evaluate the cost impacts of technological advances and economic developments, the team continuously integrates changes in battery design and materials, process technologies, as well as economic parameters into the models. Also, the optimal scale of a Gigafactory has been assessed (5).

Supply risk
Regarding supply, the team developed a methodology to quantify the global aggregated supply risks of battery component metals, as well as techniques to aggregate these into risks on the battery level (4). Current research focuses on developing a methodology to calculate region-specific supply risks.

Environmental impact
The team also analyses the environmental impact of the use of various metals in the manufacturing of battery cathode active materials (4). Current research focuses on the creation of a sustainable factory location framework which integrates the environmental aspects in addition to cost and knowledge.
The research is continuously complemented by further steps of the battery value chain and upcoming technologies to provide a holistic view on developments in the highly dynamic battery environment.

We are looking forward to collaborating with interested partners from industry and academia.


  1. L. Mauler, F. Duffner, W. Zeier, J. Leker, Battery cost forecasting: a review of methods and results with an outlook to 2050,  Energy & Environmental Science, 2021. (doi:10.1039/D1EE01530C)
  2. F. Duffner, M. Wentker, M. Greenwood, J. Leker, Battery cost modeling: A review and directions for future research, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2020, 127. (doi:10.1016/j.rser.2020.109872)
  3. M. Wentker, M. Greenwood, J. Leker, A Bottom-Up Approach to Lithium-Ion Battery Cost Modeling with a Focus on Cathode Active Materials, Energies, 2019, 12, 504. (doi:10.3390/en12030504)
  4. F. Duffner, O. Krätzig, J. Leker, Battery plant location considering the balance between knowledge and cost: A comparative study of the EU-28 countries, Journal of Cleaner Production, 2020, 264. (doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121428)
  5. M. Wentker, M. Greenwood, M. C. Asaba, J. Leker, A raw material criticality and environmental impact assessment of state-of-the-art and post-lithium-ion cathode technologies, Journal of Energy Storage, 2019, 26. (doi:10.1016/j.est.2019.101022)
  6. F. Duffner, L. Mauler, M. Wentker, J. Leker, M. Winter, Large-scale automotive battery cell manufacturing: Analyzing strategic and operational effects on manufacturing costs, International Journal of Production Economics, 2020, 232. (doi: 10.1016/j.ijpe.2020.107982)
  7. L. Mauler, F. Duffner, J. Leker, Economies of scale in battery cell manufacturing: The impact of material and process innovations, Applied Energy, 2021, 286 (doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.116499)
  8. F. Duffner, N. Kronemeyer, J. Tübke, J. Leker, M. Winter, R. Schmuch, Post-lithium-ion battery cell production and its compatibility with lithium-ion cell production infrastructure, Nature Energy, 2021. (doi:10.1038/s41560-020-00748-8)
  9. M. Greenwood, M. Wentker, J. Leker, A bottom-up performance and cost assessment of lithium-ion battery pouch cells utilizing nickel-rich cathode active materials and silicon-graphite composite anodes, Journal of Power Sources Advances, 2021. (
  10. M. Greenwood, M. Wentker, J. Leker, A region-specific raw material and lithium-ion battery criticality methodology with an assessment of NMC cathode technology, Applied Energy, 2021. (