Battery Team
© IfbM

Battery Research

The battery team, consisting of researchers from the Helmholtz Institute Münster, the Fraunhofer Research Unit for Battery Cell Manufacturing and the University of Münster, develops strategic perspectives on battery research. The research area includes cost, supply and environmental aspects along the entire value chain as well as data-driven approaches to decision making and the team investigates the current state of the art as well as future battery technologies.

  • Cost Modeling


    Currently, the excessive cost of batteries is still one of the main obstacles limiting the widespread of electric vehicles.

    After a detailed analysis of cost assessment models, the team has developed detailed bottom-up material and process cost models that allow battery costs to be derived at the cell and system level and to make the cost effects of different battery materials transparent. The freely available bottom-up battery cost model CellEst is continuously developed by our chair. Version 1.0 was presented in February 2019 (Energies) and version 2.0 followed in April 2021 (Journal of Power Sources Advances). The latest version 2.1 is available since September 2021 and can be freely downloaded as an Excel model including a short introduction.

    Based on these models, the optimal size of a battery manufacturing plant was investigated, and the future battery costs were also projected under consideration of both technological advances and future material price expectations.

    The economic competitiveness of different post-lithium-ion technologies is also in the scope of our research. Regarding this, the compatibility of these technologies with the lithium-ion production infrastructure and their impact on production costs were investigated.

    Another focus is on the development of a process cost model for different active cathode materials, which usually contribute the largest share of the total battery cost.

    In addition, we are also working on application-oriented studies. For instance, our recent article evaluated the competitiveness of trucks using different energy sources in the United States.

    To assess the impact of technological advances and economic developments in the future, the team is continuously integrating further developments in battery design, materials, process technology, and economic parameters into the models. In addition, the optimal size of a battery manufacturing plant was investigated.

    We look forward to collaborating with interested partners from industry and research.


    1. L. Mauler, X. Lou, F. Duffner, J. Leker, Technological innovation vs. tightening raw material markets: falling battery costs put at risk, Energy Advances, 2022. (

    2. L. Mauler, L. Dahrendorf, F. Duffner, M. Winter, J. Leker, Cost-effective technology choice in a decarbonized and diversified long-haul truck transportation sector: A U.S. case study, Journal of Energy Storage, 2022. (

    3. L. Mauler, F. Duffner, W. Zeier, J. Leker, Battery cost forecasting: a review of methods and results with an outlook to 2050,  Energy & Environmental Science, 2021. (doi:10.1039/D1EE01530C)

    4. L. Mauler, F. Duffner, J. Leker, Economies of scale in battery cell manufacturing: The impact of material and process innovations, Applied Energy, 2021, 286 (doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.116499)

    5. F. Duffner, N. Kronemeyer, J. Tübke, J. Leker, M. Winter, R. Schmuch, Post-lithium-ion battery cell production and its compatibility with lithium-ion cell production infrastructure, Nature Energy, 2021. (doi:10.1038/s41560-020-00748-8)

    6. M. Greenwood, M. Wentker, J. Leker, A bottom-up performance and cost assessment of lithium-ion battery pouch cells utilizing nickel-rich cathode active materials and silicon-graphite composite anodes, Journal of Power Sources Advances, 2021. (

    7. F. Duffner, M. Wentker, M. Greenwood, J. Leker, Battery cost modeling: A review and directions for future research, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2020, 127. (doi:10.1016/j.rser.2020.109872)

    8. F. Duffner, L. Mauler, M. Wentker, J. Leker, M. Winter, Large-scale automotive battery cell manufacturing: Analyzing strategic and operational effects on manufacturing costs, International Journal of Production Economics, 2020, 232. (doi:10.1016/j.ijpe.2020.107982)

    9. M. Wentker, M. Greenwood, J. Leker, A Bottom-Up Approach to Lithium-Ion Battery Cost Modeling with a Focus on Cathode Active Materials, Energies, 2019, 12, 504. (doi:10.3390/en12030504)

    Contact Persons

    Xixue Lou, M. Sc.

    Florian Frieden, M. Sc.

  • Environmental Impacts and Supply Risks


    In addition to cost and technical performance, environmental impacts are critical for competitive batteries.

    Through the use of life cycle analysis (LCA), the impact of different metals in the manufacturing process for cathode active materials has already been investigated. Another project represented the development of an integrated location concept for battery factories that takes into account environmental aspects as well as costs and knowledge.

    We are working closely with laboratory-based development of future battery technologies, optimizing cell specifications based on initial findings from life cycle analyses. Similarly, we are working on application-related studies, for example through our recently published investigation of the environmental impact of stationary battery home storage.

    With regard to battery supply, a project has developed methodologies to quantify global supply risks for battery materials and aggregate them at battery level.

    In order to continue to provide a holistic view of developments in the highly dynamic battery environment, research is continuously being extended to include further steps in battery value creation and new technologies.

    We are always open for cooperations on environmentally relevant issues in industry and research.


    1. Gutsch, M. & Leker, J. Global warming potential of lithium-ion battery energy storage systems: A review. J. Energy Storage 52, 2022. (doi:
    2. M. Greenwood, M. Wentker, J. Leker, A region-specific raw material and lithium-ion battery criticality methodology with an assessment of NMC cathode technology, Applied Energy, 2021. (
    3. F. Duffner, O. Krätzig, J. Leker, Battery plant location considering the balance between knowledge and cost: A comparative study of the EU-28 countries, Journal of Cleaner Production, 2020, 264. (doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121428)
    4. Wentker, M., Greenwood, M., Asaba, M. C. & Leker, J. A raw material criticality and environmental impact assessment of state-of-the-art and post-lithium-ion cathode technologies, Journal of Energy Storage 26, 2019. (doi:

    Contact Persons

    Moritz Gutsch, M. Sc

    Florian Frieden, M. Sc.

  • Data Science


    In today's turbulent environment with growing information overload, strategic decision making is becoming increasingly complex. In this context, Data Science approaches enable the uncovering of hidden facts, the identification of trends and the visualization of relationships from large data sets (Big Data) to support decision making.

    By applying network analysis and newly introduced metrics to patent data, we have already been able to investigate the development trends of solid-state battery technology. Further use of link prediction, machine learning as well as text mining also enabled the use of patent data to predict future technology developments of post-lithium-ion batteries and the extraction of their prominent application areas from text data. In addition to patent data, M&A data was used to investigate the development paths of market convergences and the associated potential market developments. Data analysis of public funding databases enabled us to visualize the cooperation structure of the university and industrial, German battery research landscape.

    In the context of our research, data analysis is based on commercial databases providing well-curated information in the form of patents, M&A and start-up data, but also social media data (e.g. Twitter) and public databases (e.g. EU funding databases) are used. Research includes both structured and unstructured data to provide key insights into market or technology developments.

    We are always open to collaborations on market and technology relevant issues in industry and research.


    1. Block, A., & Song, C. H. (2022). Exploring the characteristics of technological knowledge interaction dynamics in the field of solid-state batteries: A patent-based approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 353, 131689. (

    2. Aaldering, L. J., & Song, C. H. (2021). Of leaders and laggards-Towards digitalization of the process industries. Technovation, 105, 102211. (DOI: 10.1016/j.technovation.2020.102211)

    3. Aaldering, L. J., & Song, C. H. (2019). Tracing the technological development trajectory in post-lithium-ion battery technologies: A patent-based approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 241, 118343. (

    4. Aaldering, L. J., Leker, J., & Song, C. H. (2019). Competition or collaboration?–analysis of technological knowledge ecosystem within the field of alternative powertrain systems: a patent-based approach. Journal of cleaner production, 212, 362-371. (

    5. Aaldering, L. J., Leker, J., & Song, C. H. (2019). Uncovering the dynamics of market convergence through M&A. Technological forecasting and social change, 138, 95-114. (

    6. Aaldering, L. J., Leker, J., & Song, C. H. (2019). Analysis of technological knowledge stock and prediction of its future development potential: The case of lithium-ion batteries. Journal of cleaner production, 223, 301-311. (

    7. Aaldering, L. J., Leker, J., & Song, C. H. (2019). Recommending untapped M&A opportunities: A combined approach using principal component analysis and collaborative filtering. Expert systems with applications, 125, 221-232. (

    8. Song, C. H., & Aaldering, L. J. (2019). Strategic intentions to the diffusion of electric mobility paradigm: The case of internal combustion engine vehicle. Journal of Cleaner Production, 230, 898-909. (

    9. Aaldering, L. J., Leker, J., & Song, C. H. (2018). Analyzing the impact of industry sectors on the composition of business ecosystem: A combined approach using ARM and DEMATEL. Expert Systems with Applications, 100, 17-29. (

    Contact Persons

    Anton Block, M. Sc.

    André Hemmelder, M. Sc.